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ASA S3/SC1.4 TR-2014 Sound Exposure Guidelines for Fishes and Sea Turtles: A Technical Report Prepared by ANSI-Accredited Standards Committee S3/SC1 and Registered With ANSI


Series: SpringerBriefs in Oceanography

By: Arthur N Popper(Author), Anthony D Hawkins(Author), Richard R Fay(Author), David A Mann(Author), Soraya Bartol(Author), Thomas J Carlson(Author), Sheryl Coombs(Author), William T Ellison(Author), Roger L Gentry(Author), Michele B Halvorsen(Author), Svein Løkkeborg(Author), Peter H Rogers(Author), Brandon L Southall(Author), William N Tavolga(Author)

75 pages, 3 colour & 4 b/w illustrations, 6 tables


Paperback | Jul 2014 | #215731 | ISBN-13: 9783319066585
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1 week Details
NHBS Price: £49.99 $64/€56 approx

About this book

This Technical Report presents the outcome of a Working Group that was established to determine broadly applicable sound exposure guidelines for fishes and sea turtles. After consideration of the diversity of fish and sea turtles, guidelines were developed for broad groups of animals, defined by the way they detect sound. Different sound sources were considered in terms of their acoustic characteristics and appropriate metrics defined for measurement of the received levels. The resultant sound exposure guidelines are presented in a set of tables. In some cases numerical guidelines are provided, expressed in appropriate metrics. When there were insufficient data to support numerical values, the relative likelihood of effects occurring was evaluated, although the actual likelihood of effects depends on the received level. These sound exposure guidelines, which are based on the best scientific information at the time of writing, should be treated as interim. The expectation is that with more research the guidelines can be refined and more cells in the tables completed. Recommendations are put forward defining the research requirements of highest priority for extending these interim exposure guidelines.


1. Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Background Literature
1.3 Terminology 

2. Aquatic Organisms of Concern
2.1 Fishes
2.2 Sea Turtles
2.3 Eggs and larvae 

3. Hearing – A General Overview
3.1 Fish Hearing: Sensitivity to Sound
3.2 Lateral Line System
3.3 Turtle Hearing
3.4 Masking
3.5 Auditory Scene Analysis
3.6 Directional Hearing

4. Classification of Fishes and Sea Turtles with Respect to Sound Exposure Risk
4.1 Fishes
4.2 Sea Turtles
4.3 Larval Fish
4.4 Categories 

5. Effects of Sound Exposure

5.1 Death and Injury
5.2 Effects on Hearing
5.3 Effects on Behavior
5.4 Population-Level Effects on Fitness and Survival 

6. The Nature of Man-Made Sound
6.1 Metrics
6.1.1 Sound Pressure
6.1.2 Particle Motion
6.1.3 Peak Levels
6.1.4 Sound Intensity
6.1.5 Impulse
6.1.6 Sound Exposure Level
6.1.7 Cumulative Energy (Cumulative Sound Exposure Level)
6.1.8 Frequency Weighting
6.2 Sources
6.2.1 Explosions
6.2.2 Seismic Airguns
6.2.3 Pile Driving
6.2.4 Active Sonar
6.2.5 Continuous Sound Sources 

7. Sound Exposure Guidelines
7.1 Current Guidelines for Injury
7.2 Current Guidelines for Behavior
7.3 Practical Approach to Recommending Sound Exposure Guidelines
7.4 Explanation of the Analyses
7.5 Guidelines
7.5.1 Source: Explosions
7.5.2 Source: Pile Driving
7.5.3 Source: Seismic Airguns
7.5.4 Source: Low- and Mid-Frequency Naval Sonar
7.5.5 Source: Shipping and Other Continuous Noises 

8. Research Recommendations
8.1 General Comments
8.1.1 The Importance of Providing an Appropriate Acoustic Environment for Experiments
8.1.2 The Difficulties in Examining Behavior
8.1.3 The Diversity of Fishes and Sea Turtles
8.2 Research Requirements of Highest Priority
8.2.1 Fishes
8.2.2 Eggs and Larvae
8.2.3 Sea Turtles 

9. Summary and Conclusions

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