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This book describes the methods used to construct general circulation models of the atmosphere, and how such models perform in applications relating to the real climate and environmental systems. The author describes the fundamental dynamics of the atmospheric circulation, modelling of the general circulation, and applications of GCMs. The book consits of three parts: - Part 1 summarizes the physical processes involved, including basic equations, waves and instabilities; - Part 2 covers atmospheric structures, including various types of one- and two-dimensional structures and circulations; - Part 3 describes the basic notions for construction of general circulation models of the atmosphere and their applications. The text includes an appendix incorporating the basic data and mathematical formulae required to enable readers to construct GCMs for themselves.
Part 1: Principle Ideas chap1: Basic equations chap2: Basic balances and stability chap3: Approximations of equations chap4: Waves chap5: Instability chap6: Forced motions chap7: Eddy transport chap8: Thermodynamics of moist air chap9: Basic equations of moist air chap10: Radiation process chap11: Turbulence Part 2: Atmospheric Structures chap12: Global budget chap13: Latitudinal energy balance chap14: Vertical structure chap15: Moist convection chap16: Low-latitude circulations chap17: Circulations on the sphere chap18: Mid-latitude circulations chap19: Global mixing Part 3: General Circulation Modeling chap20: Basic equations of the general circulation models chap21: Spectral method on the sphere chap22: Vertical discretization chap23: Time integration chap24: Global nonhydrostatic models chap25: Standard experiments of atmospheric general circulation models Appendix1: Transformation of coordinates Appendix2: Physical constants Appendix3: Meridional structure