Part 1 Introduction: what is environmental science?; environmental interactions, cycles and systems; ecology and environmentalism; history of environmental science; changing attitudes to the natural world. Part 2 Earth sciences: formation and structure of the earth; the formation of rocks, minerals, and geologic structures; weathering; the evolution of landforms; coasts, estuaries, sea levels; energy from the sun; albedo and heat capacity; the greenhouse effect; the evolution, composition, and structure of the atmosphere; general circulation of the atmosphere; oceans, gyres, currents; weather and climate; glacials, interglacials, and interstadials; dating methods; climate change; climatic regions and floristic regions. Part 3 Physical resources: fresh water and the hydrological cycle; eutrophication and the life cycles of lakes; salt water, brackish water, and desalination; irrigation, waterlogging, and salinization; soil formation, ageing, and taxonomy; transport by water and wind; soil, climate, and land use; soil erosion and its control; mining and processing of fuels; mining and processing of minerals. Part 4 Biosphere: biosphere, biomes, biogeography; nutrient cycles; respiration and photosynthesis; trophic relationships; energy, numbers, biomass; ecosystems; succession and climax; arrested successions; colonization; stability, instability, and reproductive strategies; simplicity and diversity; homeostasis, feedback, regulation; limits of tolerance. Part 5 Biological resources: evolution; evolutionary strategies and game theory; adaption; dispersal mechanisms; wildlife species and habitats; biodiversity; fisheries; forests; farming for food and fibre; human populations and demographic change; genetic engineering. Part 6 Environmental management: wildlife conservation; 57: Zoos, nature reserves, wilderness; pest control; restoration ecology; world conservation strategies; pollution control; transnational pollution.