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A radical reconsideration of how we develop the qualities that make us human, based on decades of cutting-edge experimental work by the former director of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
Virtually all theories of how humans have become such a distinctive species focus on evolution. Here, Michael Tomasello proposes a complementary theory of human uniqueness, focused on development. Building on the seminal ideas of Vygotsky, his data-driven model explains how those things that make us most human are constructed during the first years of a child's life.
Tomasello assembles nearly three decades of experimental work with chimpanzees, bonobos, and human children to propose a new framework for psychological growth between birth and seven years of age. He identifies eight pathways that starkly differentiate humans from their closest primate relatives: social cognition, communication, cultural learning, cooperative thinking, collaboration, prosociality, social norms, and moral identity. In each of these, great apes possess rudimentary abilities. But then, Tomasello argues, the maturation of humans' evolved capacities for shared intentionality transform these abilities – through the new forms of sociocultural interaction they enable – into uniquely human cognition and sociality. The first step occurs around nine months, with the emergence of joint intentionality, exercised mostly with caregiving adults. The second step occurs around three years, with the emergence of collective intentionality involving both authoritative adults, who convey cultural knowledge, and coequal peers, who elicit collaboration and communication. Finally, by age six or seven, children become responsible for self-regulating their beliefs and actions so that they comport with cultural norms.
Becoming Human places human sociocultural activity within the framework of modern evolutionary theory, and shows how biology creates the conditions under which culture does its work.
1. In Search of Human Uniqueness
2. Evolutionary Foundations
Explanation in Developmental Psychology
II. The Ontogeny of Uniquely Human Cognition
3. Social Cognition
From Apes: Imagining What Others Perceive and Know
The Coordination of Perspectives
From Apes: Intentional Communication
5. Cultural Learning
From Apes: Social Learning
Imitation and Conformity
6. Cooperative Thinking
From Apes: Individual Thinking
III. The Ontogeny of Uniquely Human Sociality
From Apes: Acting in Parallel with Others
From Apes: Basic Sympathy
Smithian Helping and Sharing
9. Social Norms
From Apes: Group Life
10. Moral Identity
From Apes: Social Evaluation
Self-Presentation and Self-Conscious Emotions
Moral Justification and Identity
11. A Neo-Vygotskian Theory
Global Theories of Human Ontogeny
Shared Intentionality Theory
Problems and Prospects
12. The Power of Shared Agency
Michael Tomasello is Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at Duke University. From 1998 to 2018 he was Co-Director of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, and in 2017 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His scientific work has been recognized by institutions around the world, including the Guggenheim Foundation, the British Academy, the Royal Academy of Netherlands, and the German National Academy of Sciences.
"Theoretically daring, experimentally ingenious, and astonishingly generative, Becoming Human squarely tackles the abiding question of what makes us human."
– Susan Gelman, University of Michigan