About this book
Result of a joint UNEP/ICIPE project, this volume presents a distillation of current views on the successes and failures of recent regimes of pest and polluting chemical management.
The world of chemicals: Introduction - Natural and unnatural chemicals, Numbers of chemicals and information available, Hazard assessment; Classes of chemicals - Organophosphates, Pyrethroids, Herbicides, Fungicides; Chemicals associated with energy production - Carbon dioxide, Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen; Heavy metals; Highly stable compounds of environmental concern - Polychlorinated biphenyls, Chlorofluorocarbons; Petroleum hydrocarbons, other high-volume chemicals. The integrated approach: integrated pest management Sterilization, Insert growth regulators, Sex attractants, Biological control, Role of pesticides in integrated pest management Regulation of pesticide usage; Regulation of nonpesticidal chemicals - regulation of carbon emissions, Regulation of oxides of sulfur, Regulation of CFCs; Waste disposal; Life-cycle management of chemicals. Pressures on pesticides in IPM: The evolution of concepts; Factors, influencing the changing role of pesticides in IPM - Pesticide policy and legislation at the international level, National efforts and legislation governing import and use of pesticides, Public perception of pesticide-associated risks Industrial pesticide development and production, Resistance to pesticides, Availability of practical IPM programmes with alternative control tactics. Principles of IPM: Economic thresholds; The integration of pesticides into IPM - Use of a selective pesticide, Formulation, Reduced dose, Application of pesticide in time, Application of pesticide in space; Insecticide application technique in relation to IPM; Biological control - Predators, Parasitoids, Pathogens, Principles of biological control with insect natural enemies, Techniques of biological control; Biodiversity in IPM - Definitions of diversity, The fundamental value of biodiversity, The effects of agriculture on diversity, Non-crop plants as insect reservoirs, The practical exploitation of plant diversity; Cultural control - Sources of cultural controls, Conclusion on cultural control; Semiochemicals - Pheromones, Allelochemicals; Genetic controls - Radiation sterilization, Radiation-induced translocation, Genetic engineering, Chemical sterilization; Host-plant resistance - Sources of plant resistance, Detection of Resistance characters, Transfer of genetic resistance, Mechanisms of plant resistance to pests, Problems of plant resistance, Interactions of Plant resistance with other IPM methods, Conclusions on plant resistance in IPM; Insect growth regulators (IGRS) - Ecdysone, Juvenile hormone (JH), JH antagonists, Cuticle inhibitors; Putting it all together - Menu systems, Computer generated IPM, The experimental approach. The practice of pest management in developing countries: South and South-East Asia - Case studies; Africa - Case studies; South America - Case studies; Constraints in development and implementation of IPM in developing countries - Technical, organizational, Crop economics, Social, Legislative,