Armenia is a small landlocked mountainous country located in the Southern Caucasus. It is a typical mountainous country, having its lowest point of 375m above sea level and culminating at 4095 m with an average altitude of 1850 m, where the landscapes and ecosystems form a complex multi-functional system. In general, the ecosystems of Armenia are characterized by a number of peculiarities, which all together contribute to formation of rich and unique biodiversity. On the small territory of Armenia (less than 30 thousand km2) there are about 3800 species of vascular plants (about a half of the whole Caucasian flora), 428 species of soil and water algae, 399 species of mosses, 4207 species of fungi, 464 species of lichens, 549 species of vertebrates and about 17,200 species of invertebrates. The biodiversity of Armenia is notable for high endemism: about 500 species of fauna (about 3% of the fauna) and 147 species of flora (3.8% of total flora) are considered endemics. Such a high level of endemism is typical only for some of the large islands. Due to the huge variety of climates (from dry subtropics to cold alpine) and soil conditions all the main Caucasian ecosystems (besides humid subtropics) are represented in Armenia – deserts and semi-deserts, steppes, meadow-steppes, forests and open woodlands, sub-alpine and alpine vegetation as well as intrazonal ecosystems. Therefore Armenia is a biodiversity hotspot both within the Caucasian ecoregion and around the globe. Biodiversity of Armenia compiles, summarizes and analyzes data on flora, fauna and mycobiota of Armenia, with a special focus on the impact of forecasted climate change on biodiversity and ecosystems of the region.
Chapter 1. Natural conditions of Armenia
Chapter 2. Ecosystems of Armenia
Chapter 3. Flora of Armenia
Chapter 4. Mycobiota of Armenia
Chapter 5. Fauna of Armenia
Chapter 6. Biodiversity conservation problems
Chapter 7. Problems of invasive plants and animals
Professor Fayvush George is the Head of the Department of Geo-botany and Ecological Physiology at the Institute of Botany of the Armenian National Academy of Sciences. Among his many accomplishments, he is a member of some IUCN specialist groups. His research interests are comparative floristic, global climate change, habitats and ecosystems, phytogeography, endemic species, invasive plants, nature conservation and sustainable use of plant resources, biodiversity, special protected areas. He has published more than 200 papers, book chapters and monographs.