The 2308 species of tiger-moths (Arctiinae and Pericopinae) of the Neotropical Region are catalogued. Twelve new species names are proposed to replace junior homonyms, and 74 new synonymies are established together with 509 new combinations and 38 reversions to original combinations of generic and specific names. Six generic and 41 specific names are removed from synonymy and re-established as valid names. Fifteen names have been changed in status from species to subspecies rank, or the reverse. A lectotype is selected for br Hypercompe scribonia (Stoll). Annotation of the catalogue entries indicates whether or not a species is represented in the collections of the British Museum (Natural History). A survey of the literature on Neotropical tiger-moths is presented. All but two of the type-species of the subfamily Pericopinae are illustrated in colour.