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About this book
Chromatography Today provides a comprehensive coverage of various separation methods: gas, liquid, thin-layer, and supercritical fluid-chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. Particular attention is paid to the optimization of these techniques in terms of kinetic parameters and retention mechanisms. When these facts are understood, method selection and optimization becomes a more logical process. Sample preparation methods are treated fully as they frequently represent an integral part of the total analytical method. Also described are preparative-scale separations used for isolating significant amounts of product which are generally achieved under conditions that are not identical to those used for analytical separations. The most common hyphenated methods used for sample identification are discussed from the perspective of the information they yield and the requirements of common interfaces. The scope and level of discussion are designed to be appropriate for various user groups. This book should be suitable for use as a graduate-level student textbook in separation science, a text for professional institutes offering short courses in chromatography, and as a self-study guide for chromatographers to refresh their knowledge of the latest developments in the field. The book is extensively illustrated with over 200 figures, 110 tables and 3,300 references, largely to the contemporary literature.
1. Fundamental Relationships of Chromatography Introduction. Retention. Flow in Porous Media. Band Broadening Mechanism. Peak Shape Models. Parameters Affecting Resolution. Optimization of Kinetic Column Variables. Principles of Quantitation in Column Chromatography. References. 2. The Column in Gas Chromatography Introduction. Packed Column Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Open Tubular Columns. Evaluation of the Quality of Open Tubular Columns. Retention in Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Gas-Solid Chromatography. Preparative-Scale Gas Chromatography. References. 3. Instrumental Aspects of Gas Chromatography Introduction. Pneumatic Systems. Thermal Zones. Sample Inlets. Detection Devices for Gas Chromatography. Column Connectors and Effluent Splitters. References. 4 The Column in Liquid Chromatography Introduction. Column Packing Materials. Column Preparation. Column Evaluation and Test Methods. Retention Mechanisms in Liquid Chromatography. Method Development Strategies for Liquid Chromatography. Preparative- Scale Liquid Chromatography. Capillary Electrophoretic Separation Methods. References. 5. Instrumental Aspects of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Introduction. Requirements with Respect to Extracolumn Dispersion. Solvent Reservoirs and Solvent Degassing. Solvent Delivery Systems. Injection Devices. Detectors. References. 6. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Introduction. Column Selection. Mobile Phase Selection. Parameters Affecting Retention. Instrumental Aspects of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. References. 7. Thin- Layer Chromatography Introduction. Theoretical Considerations. Stationary Phases for TLC. Development Techniques. Mobile Phase Optimization. Quantitative Evaluation of Thin-Layer Chromatography. References. 8. Sample Preparation for Chromatographic Analysis Introduction. Problems in Obtaining a Representative Sample. Isolation and Concentration Techniques Using Physical Methods. Isolation and Concentration Techniques Using Solvent Extraction. Sample Cleanup Using Liquid Chromatography. Sorption Techniques for Trace Enrichment of Organics in Water. Multidimensional and Multimodal Sample Fractionation and Trace Enrichment Techniques. Headspace Sampling. Air Sampling. Derivatization Techniques for Gas Chromatography. Derivatization Techniques for Liquid Chromatography. Derivatives for the Chromatographic Separation of Inorganic Anions and Cations. Visualization Techniques for Thin-Layer Chromatography. Qualitative Identification and Microreaction Techniques for Gas Chromatography. Separation of Stereoisomers. Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography. References. 9. Hyphenated Methods for Identification after Chromatographic Separation Introduction. Instrumental Requirements for Mass Spectrometry. Interface Requirements for Mass Spectrometry. Interface Requirements for Chromatographic Sample Introduction Systems in Mass Spectrometry. Data Management and Quantitative Ion Monitoring in Mass Spectrometry.