Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation and preservation of plant materials, usually in a swamp environment. Coal is a combustible rock and along with oil and natural gas it is one of the three most important fossil fuels. Coal has a wide range of uses; the most important use is for the generation of electricity. Coal geology, as an important field in coal science, deals not only with the formation, distribution, composition and character of the coals, but also with the exploration, extraction, and utilization of coal resources. The evolution of coal formation was affected by paleobotanical, paleogeographic, and paleotectonic factors. Therefore, coals in different basins have different characteristics that are closely related to the different coal-forming periods of geologic history. In addition, coal geologists have paid much attention to the relationship between the utilization of coal and the development of the human society. Coal Geology provides a complete integrated handbook on coal and all its properties, covering the physical and chemical properties of coal as well as coal petrology.