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Coastal wetlands are under a great deal of pressure from the dual forces of rising sea level and the intervention of human populations both along the estuary and in the river catchment. Direct impacts are direct such as the destruction or degradation of wetlands from land reclamation and infrastructures and indirect such as the impact of pollutants and changes in the river water and sediment discharge from land clearing and dams.
As sea level rises, coastal wetlands in most areas of the world migrate landward to occupy former uplands. The competition of these lands from human development is intensifying, making the landward migration impossible in many cases. Coastal Wetlands: An Integrated Ecosystem Approach provides an understanding of the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the ecological services that they provide, and suggestions for their management.