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About this book
About this book
How do animals perceive the world, learn, remember, search for food or mates, communicate, and find their way around? Do any nonhuman animals count, imitate one another, use a language, or have a culture? What are the uses of cognition in nature and how might it have evolved? What is the current status of Darwin's claim that other species share the same "mental powers" as humans, but to different degrees?
In this completely revised second edition of Cognition, Evolution, and Behavior, Sara Shettleworth addresses these questions, among others, by integrating findings from psychology, behavioral ecology, and ethology in a unique and wide-ranging synthesis of theory and research on animal cognition, in the broadest sense--from species-specific adaptations of vision in fish and associative learning in rats to discussions of theory of mind in chimpanzees, dogs, and ravens. She reviews the latest research on topics such as episodic memory, metacognition, and cooperation and other-regarding behavior in animals, as well as recent theories about what makes human cognition unique. In every part of this new edition, Shettleworth incorporates findings and theoretical approaches that have emerged since the first edition was published in 1998.
The chapters are now organized into three sections: Fundamental Mechanisms (perception, learning, categorization, memory), Physical Cognition (space, time, number, physical causation), and Social Cognition (social knowledge, social learning, communication). Shettleworth has also added new chapters on evolution and the brain and on numerical cognition, and a new chapter on physical causation that integrates theories of instrumental behavior with discussions of foraging, planning, and tool using.
Cognition, Evolution and the Study of Behavior; 1.1: Cognition and Consciousness; 1.2: Kinds of Explanation of Behavior; 1.3: Approaches to Comparative Cognition; 1.4: Testing Adaptive/Evolutionary Explanations; 1.5: Evolution and Cognition; 1.6: Summary; 2: Perception and Attention; 2.1: Specialized Sensory Systems; 2.2: How Can We Find Out What Animals Perceive?; 2.3: Some Psychophisical Principles; 2.4: Signal Detection Theory; 2.5: Perception and Evolution; 2.6: Perceiving Objects; 2.7: Attention; 2.8: Summary; 3: Learning: A Framework and Its Application to Pavlovian Conditioning; 3.1: General Processes and Adaptive Specializations; 3.2: A Framework for Thinking About Learning; 3.3: When Will Learning Evolve?; 3.4: Pavlovian Conditioning; 3.5: Varieties of Associative Learning; 3.6: Summary; 4: Simple Recognition Learning; 4.1: Habituation; 4.2: Perceptual Learning; 4.3: Imprinting; 4.4: Recognition and Altruism; 5: Discrimination and Classification; 5.1: Introduction: Three Examples; 5.2: Untrained Responses to Natural Stimuli; 5.3: Classifying Complex Natural Stimuli; 5.4: Discrimination Learning; 5.5: Category Discrimination and Concepts; 5.6: Summary and Conclusions; 6: Memory; 6.1: The Issues; 6.2: Methods for Studying Memory in Animals; 6.3: Conditions for Memory; 6.4: Species Differences in Memory; 6.5: Contents of Memory; 6.6: Summary and Conclusions; 7: Getting Around; 7.1: Mechanisms for Spatial Orientation; 7.2: How is Spatial Information Integrated? Modularity and Averaging; 7.3: Do Animals Have Cognitive Maps?; 7.4: Acquiring Spatial Knowledge: The Conditions for Learning; 7.5: Summary and Conclusions; 8: Timing and Counting; 8.1: Circadian Rhythms; 8.2: Characteristics of Interval Timing; 8.3: Theories of Interval Timing; 8.4: Do Animals Count?; 8.5: Summary; 9: Foraging and Measuring Rate; 9.1: Introduction; 9.2: How Individuals Choose Patches; 9.3: Choosing Patches With a Group; 9.4: Leaving Depleting Patches; 9.5: Choosing Prey; 9.6: Assessing Risk; 9.7: Summary; 10: Learning From Others; 10.1: The Behavioral Ecology of Social Learning; 10.2: Mechanisms for Social Learning; 10.3: Vocal Imitation: Bird Song Learning; 10.4: Tool Use and Teaching; 10.5: Putting It All Together; 11: Cognitive Ethology and the Evolution of Mind; 11.1: Cognitive Ethology; 11.2: Intentions, Intentionality, and the Intentional Stance; 11.3: Monkey in the Mirror; 11.4: Theory of Mind; 11.5: The Social Theory of Intellect and Evolutionary Psychology; 11.6: Whither Cognitive Ethology; 12: Communication and Language; 12.1: Approaches to Studying Communication; 12.2: Some Natural Communication Systems; 12.3: Trying to Teach Human Language to Other Species; 12.4: Overview; 13: Summing Up and Looking Ahead; 13.1: Modularity and the Animal Mind; 13.2: How Does Cognition Evolve?; 13.3: Anthropomorphism and Representational Explanations; 13.4: Synthesizing the Ecological and Anthropocentric Program