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Encyclopedia examines all aspects of tree fruit cultivation in the world's temperate zones. Topics include molecular genetics, fruit colour, pest management, and more.
List of Figures List of Tables About the Editors Contributors Preface Anatomy and Taxonomy Pome Fruit Stone Fruit Other Temperate Tree Fruit Breeding and Molecular Genetics Hybridization Nontraditional Breeding Techniques Carbohydrate Partitioning and Plant Growth Seasonal Patterns of Carbohydrate Production Partitioning to Tree Organs Environmental Factors Affecting Partitioning Cultivar Selection Selection Criteria Multidisciplinary and International Evaluation of Cultivars Major Cultivars of the World Diseases Background on Tree Fruit Diseases and Their Control Common Pome Fruit Diseases Common Stone Fruit Diseases Dormancy and Acclimation Forms of Dormancy Specific Cases of Dormancy Physiological Basis for Dormancy Acclimation Dwarfing Genetic Dwarfing Horticultural Practices to Induce Dwarfing Flower Bud Formation, Pollination, and Fruit Set Flower Formation Pollination Fertilization Fruit Color Development Color Measurement Pigments Physiology of Color Formation in Tree Fruit Fruit Growth Patterns What Is a Stone or Pome Fruit What Is Fruit Growth Growth by Cell Division and Cell Expansion Growth Patterns of Different Fruit Importance of Maintaining Fruit Growth Fruit Shape Fruit Maturity The Compromise Between Quality and Storability Development of Maturity Indices Maturity or Harvest Indices for Specific Fruit Maturity Programs Geographic Considerations Latitude Elevation Water Bodies Aspect Rainfall Harvest Hand Harvesting Harvest Aids Mechanical Harvesting High-Density Orchards Light Environment Production Efficiency and Packout Management Insects and Mites Direct Pests Indirect Pests Beneficial Insects Irrigation Irrigation Scheduling Irrigation Systems Light Interception and Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Factors Affecting Photosynthesis Light Interception Responses of Fruit Trees to Light Orchard Practices to Improve Light Marketing Key Agents Key Functions Nematodes Beneficial Free-Living Nematodes Plant-Parasitic Nematodes and Associated Problems Major Nematodes That Affect Fruit Trees Nepovirus Diseases Diagnosis of Nematode Problems Nematode Control Nutritional Value of Fruit Health Benefits of Fruit Consumption Phenolic Compounds in Pome and Stone Fruit Orchard Floor Management Orchard Groundcover Advantages Orchard Groundcover Disadvantages Orchard Planning and Site Preparation Site Assessment Orchard Design and Tree Quality Orchard Preparation Tree Planting Packing Presizing and Presorting Weight Sizing, Color Sorting, and Packaging Defect Sorting Modified-Atmosphere Packing Bruise Prevention Nondestructive Quality Assessment Physiological Disorders Types of Physiological Disorders Major Physiological Disorders of Temperate Tree Fruit Plant Growth Regulation Regulation of Tree Vigor and Enhancement of Flowering Chemical Thinning Control of Preharvest Drop of Fruit Specialty Applications in Targeted Situations Plant Hormones Auxin Gibberellin Cytokinin Abscisic Acid Ethylene Mode of Action Plant Nutrition Soil As a Reservoir of Plant Nutrients Nutrient Absorption and Transport Physiological and Biochemical Functions of Plant Nutrients Modern Trends in Fruit Tree Nutrition Plant-Pest Relationships and the Orchard Ecosystem Arthropods Disease-Causing Pathogens Nematodes Vertebrates Weeds Postharvest Fruit Physiology Respiration and Ethylene Production Texture Color Flavor Processing Apple Cultivars and Quality Characteristics Apple Sorting Applesauce Production Apple Slice Production Apple Juice Production Quality Assessments Other Temperate Fruit Propagation Sexual Propagation Vegetative Propagation Rootstock Selection Effects of Rootstocks and Reasons for Selection Rootstock-Scion Compatibility Types of Rootstocks Multicomponent Plants Soil Management and Plant Fertilization Methods of Estimating Fertilizer Needs Fertilizer Application Practices Managing Extreme Soil Environments Spring Frost Control Frost Control Principles Frost Control Techniques Storing and Handling Fruit Precooling Cold Storage Controlled Atmosphere Storage Relative Humidity Monitoring Storages Sustainable Orcharding Integrated Pest Management Integrated Fruit Production Organic Production Temperature Relations Freezing Tolerance versus Freezing Avoidance Overwintering Systems and Strategies to Distinguish Cold Hardiness and Dormancy Transitions Training and Pruning Principles Apical Dominance and Growth Shoot Orientation Effect on Apical Dominance General Responses to Pruning Types of Pruning Cuts Training and Pruning Objective Training Systems Central Leader Systems Open Center Systems Vertical and Horizontal Trellis Systems Tree Canopy Temperature Management Temperature Assessment Cooling Strategies Water Relations Pathway of Water from the Soil to the Leaf Ascent of Water in Plants Transpiration Stream of Water Components of Plant Water Relations Wildlife Integrated Approach to Wildlife Management General Control Strategies Index Reference Notes Included