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About this book
About this book
Plant embryology, dealing with the regularities of initiation and the first stages of development of an organism, is now flourishing because of the overall progress being made in natural sciences. Such discoveries of the 20th century as production of plants from a single somatic cell, experimental haploidy, and parasexual hybridization were of general biological significance. The combined efforts of embryologists, geneticists and molecular biologists yielded the discovery of specific genes that control meiosis, egg cell development and early stages of embryogenesis. The tendency to synthesize data of embryology and genetics has become increasingly noticeable. It is connected with the fact that the majority of problems connected with morphogenesis, such as differentiation, specialization, the evaluation of features and the definition of the notions A A'gene and feature A A' and A A'genotype and phenotype A A', concern embryology and genetics (embryogenetics) in one way or another.Evolutionary embryology has given rise to a new approach to the study of problems of adaptation in plants. In connection with the problem of preserving biological diversity under conditions of ecological stress, special attention is paid to ecological embryology, revealing the critical periods in early ontogenesis and plasticity and tolerance of reproductive systems at the level of species and population. The study of variability of morphogenesis and phenotype in population (life cycle variations and the diversity of reproductive systems) is the most important point in the population embryology of plants.
PART ONE - PLANT REPRODUCTION OVERVIEW: Reproductive Biology; Ecological Embryology; Reproduction, Propagation and Renewal; Viviparity; Metamorphosis; Life Cyclesi? PART TWO-POLLINATION AND BREEDING POLLINATION SYSTEMS: Anthecology; Sexual Polymorphism; Monoecy; Gynodioecy; Heterostyly; Dichogamy; Population Aspects of Sex Determinaton; Modes of Pollen Transfer and Pollinating Agents; Chasmogamy; Cleistogamy; Specific Features of Cleistogamy in Annual Species of Medicago L. (Fabaceae); The Evolution of Wind Pollinationi? BREEDING SYSTEMS: Autogamy; i? llogamy; Pollen-Ovule Ratios in Different Breeding Systems; Stigmatic and Ovular Receptivity-Facts and Hypotheses; Pollination Failure in Natural Populations: Implications for the Conservation of Rare Plants; Significance of Hybridization in the Higher Plant Evolutioni? PART THREE - SEED PROPAGATION AMPHIMIXIS AND APOMIXIS: Amphimixis; Apomixis; Apospory; Diplospory; Parthenogenesis; Apogamety; Classification of Apomixis; Embryo-Endosperm Interrelations in Apomixis; Ultrastructural Aspects of the Apomixis; Space and Time Organization of Megaspore- and Megagametophytogenesis in Amphimictic and Apomictic Plants; Experimental Induction of Apomixis in vivo and in vitro; Applied Aspects of Gametophytic Apomixis; Alchemilla L. (Rosaceae) is a Classical Object for Studying Facultative Apomixis; The Problem of Evolutionary Significance of Apomixis; The Evolution of Gametophytic Apomixisi? SEED PROPAGATION: Seed and Seed Propagation; Reproductive Effort; Reproductive Success; Potential Seed Productivity; Real Seed Productivity; Seed Productivity in Symphytum L. (Boraginaceae; Seed Productivity in Apomicts; Aberrant Ovules and Seeds: Structure and Diagnostics Heterospermy; Seed Bank; Fruit; Heterocarpyi? PART FOUR-VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION: Vegetative Propagation; Sarmentation; Particulation; Bud; Brood Bud; Bulb; Bulblet and Bulbil; Protocorm; Embryoidogeny is a New Type of Vegetative Propagation; Phytomer Conception and the Higher Plant Evolutioni? PART FIVE-MOLECULAR-GENETIC ASPECTS OF REPRODUCTION: Flower Development Genetics; Genetic Analysis of Ovule Development; Gametophytic Mutations; Modifiable Variability of Gametophyte; Plant Embryogenetics; Genetic Control of Apomixis; Genetic Heterogeneity of Seeds. Polyembryonyi? PART SIX-POPULATION AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF REPRODUCTION: Phytocenosis; Ecological niche; Population; Life form; Diaspore; Population and Coenotic Regulation of Reproduction; Population and Coenotic Aspects of the Research of the Plant Reproduction in Arctic Conditions; Multiplicity of Vegetative Propagation and Expantion in the Ranunculaceae; Ontogenesis in Ferula L. (Apiaceae) i? PART SEVEN-EMBRYOLOGICAL BASES OF REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES: Adaptive Possibilities and Reproductive Strategy in Trapaceae; Reproductive Strategy in Ceratophyllaceae; Reproductive Strategy in Nelumbonaceae; Seed Propagation and Vegetative Propagation in Vaccinium myrtillus L. (Ericaceae; Reproductive Strategy in Viviparous Plants; Reproductive Strategy of Orchids in Temperate Zone; Problems and Perspectives of In Vitro Seed Propagation in Orchids of Temperate Zone; Action of Herbicides and Other Factors on Embryogenesis of Striga hermonthica (Scrophulariaceae); Effects of Environmental Pollution on Plant Reproduction