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About this book
About this book
The increasing level of pollution in the environment not only harms the natural world, but also accelerates the deterioration and corrosion of materials used in technical work, as well as objects with historical or artistic value. It is impossible to eliminate the numerous sources of this negative effect, so there are currently increased efforts towards improved preservation, which require a thorough knowledge of the causes of the degradation of individual materials. This book deals with the fundamental principles underlying environmental degradation of widely-used and economically important construction materials such as metals, stone, brick, concrete, timber, cast iron, steel, copper alloys and aluminium. It features information on the methods of deterioration, as well as general information on the economic impact of the damaging processes, and offers some suggested fundamental protection techniques for buildings, industrial and agricultural facilities, monuments and culturally important structures. This book will be of interest to materials and corrosion engineering experts, civil and environmental engineers, students and practicing professionals, designers, architects and restoration engineers. It will also be a useful tool for managers from various sectors of industry, for auditors of environmental management systems, and it can be used as a complementary course book for university students.
Chapter 1: Environmental factors that influence the deterioration of materials Introduction; Meteorological and climatic factors; Harmful effects of air, water and soil; Biodeterioration of materials Chapter 2: Environmental deterioration of metals Introduction; Electrochemical corrosion of metals; Types of corrosion; Corrosion environments; Corrosion protection methods; Economic impacts Chapter 3: Corrosivity of atmospheres - derivation and use of information Introduction; Corrosivity as a property of material-and-environment system; Classification of corrosivity for technical purposes basis for standardization; Classification of low corrosivity of indoor atmospheres; Derivation of corrosivity of exposure locations, monitoring; Using new knowledge to improve classification systems; Trends in corrosivity of atmosphere within Europe; Technical use of information on corrosivity; Mapping of regional layout of corrosivity of atmospheres; Conclusion Chapter 4: Atmospheric corrosion and conservation of copper and bronze Introduction; Atmospheric corrosion of copper and its alloys; Typical corrosion manifestations on copper and bronze objects; Selected methods of cleaning and conserving copper and bronze objects; Economic impacts; Impact of atmospheric corrosion of copper and its alloys on the environment; Case Studies Chapter 5: Environmental deterioration of concrete Introduction; Chemical deterioration of cement paste components; Deterioration of aggregates in concrete; Corrosion of steel reinforcement; Damage to concrete by repeated freezing and thawing; Mechanical deterioration of concrete; Structural consequences of environmental damage; Economic considerations Chapter 6: Corrosion of steel reinforcement Principles of corrosion; Damage to structural concrete due to corrosion; Final remarks Chapter 7: Environmental pollution effects on other building materials Introduction; Lime and mixed external coating; Plaster of Paris; Bricks; Natural stone; Deterioration of the sandstone adornment of the St. Peter and Paul's Cathedral in Brno Chapter 8: Environmental deterioration of building materials Introduction; Damage to residential and office buildings; Environmental damage to industrial buildings; Environmental damage to transportation infrastructure; Farm buildings deterioration; Deterioration of other structures Chapter 9: Environmental deterioration of timber Introduction; Wood as a material; Biological factors which cause deterioration; Non-biological factors that cause deterioration; Fire; Techniques for preserving wood; Fire retardants; Economic considerations