Environmental, health and sanitary requirements in developed countries are sometimes perceived in developing countries as non-tariff barriers to trade. This book shows that such restrictions are perceived to be more stringent during the domestic production season or when stock levels are high. The authors argue that scientific data for specific thresholds or limit values sometimes appear to be questionable and that they vary widely between countries. In some cases, products that had initially been refused access to a domestic market have subsequently been allowed access but at a lower price. Thus standards are perceived to be a mechanism for bidding down the export price. Countries from the same region with similar water or climatic conditions may be subject to differential degrees of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS). Measures to address protectionist aspects of standards must be devised to ensure free and fair trade.