The purpose of this book is to supply the background needed to structure research on estuarine beach resources and provide the basis for a program for informed management. The book is a synthesis of data on physical, biological, and human processes.
Definitions and locations of estuarine beaches. Definitions. Location of estuarine beaches. Beaches in urbanized estuaries. Keil Fjord. San Francisco. San Pablo Bays. Raritan and Delaware Bays, New Jersey. Summary. Waves, currents, and water level changes. Characteristics of estuarine waves. Wave heights. Influence of water level. Characteristics of water elevation spectra. Wave generation and prediction. Wave refraction. Ocean wave inputs. Relative sea level changes. Longshore currents. Storm surges. Ship and boat wakes. Ice. Summary. Beach and shoreline characteristics. Beach sediments. Sandy beaches. Gravel beaches. Depth of the active beach. Resistant formations in the beach matrix. Biologic effects. Vegetation. Fauna. Beach widths. Shoreline orientation. Longshore transport rates. Rates of shoreline change. Dunes. Human processes and shoreline alterations. Summary. Changes in beach morphology and sediment volumes. The high-energy ocean-beach model. Models for meso-tidal estuarine beaches. Response to high-energy waves on estuarine beaches. Response to differences in longshore sediment transport. Likelihood of morphologic responses. Beaches in developed areas. Long-term changes in morphology and sediment volume. Micro-tidal estuarine beaches. Macro-tidal estuarine beaches. Gravel beaches. Bars. Multiple shore-parallel bars. Transverse bars. Summary. Resource values of estuarine beaches. Ecological values. Human resource value. Protective values. Boat launch. Investment potential. Recreation. Physical advantages of estuarine beaches. Alterations to enhance recreation. Importance of access. Factors discouraging recreational use. Priorities for use of recreation beaches. Summary. Shore protection alternatives. The no-action alternative. Land use control. Static protection structures. Construction materials. Breakwaters. Perched beach. Groins. Bulkheads, revetments and seawalls. Vegetation. Dunes beach nourishment. Summary. Management considerations. Major federal programmes. The Coastal Zone Management Act. The Coastal Barrier Resources Act. The National Flood Insurance Program. Corps of engineer activities. Other federal programmes. State management programmes. Waterfront development laws. Wetlands and tidelands management acts. Water quality planning and maintenance programmes. Erosion control setback lines. Site plan reviews for large-scale developments. Park and recreation programmes. Local governments. Regional authorities and commissions. Implications of managing estuarine beaches. Criteria for erosion control. Decisions affecting use and development of estuarine beaches. Determining locations of beaches. Evaluating beach processes. Determining beach characteristics. Determining the origin of beaches. Assessing the likelihood of survival of beaches. Uses or values of existing beaches. Factors that can enhance the value of estuarine beach resources. Creation of new public estuarine beaches. Controls to ensure maintenance and value of public beaches. Conflicts between recreational uses and ecological values. Summary. Research needs. Process studies. Sediment movement and beach change. Alternatives for shore protection. Resource values. Human values. Ecological values. Conclusions. References.