Pigs are among the most peculiar animals domesticated in the Ancient Near East. Their story, from domestication to taboo, has fascinated historians, archaeologists, and religious studies scholars for decades. Rejecting simple explanations, this book adopts an evolutionary approach that relies on zooarchaeology and texts to unravel the cultural significance of swine in the Near East from the Paleolithic to the present day. Five major themes are covered: The domestication of the pig from wild boars in the Neolithic period, the unique roles that pigs developed in agricultural economies before and after the development of complex societies, the raising of swine in cities, the shifting ritual roles of pigs, and the formation and development of the pork taboo in Judaism and, later, Islam.
The origins and significance of this taboo have inspired much debate. Evolution of a Taboo contends that the well-known taboo described in Leviticus evolved over time, beginning with conflicts between Israelites and Philistines in the early part of the Iron Age, and later was mobilized by Judah's priestly elite in the writing of the Biblical texts. Centuries later, the pig taboo became a point of contention in the ethno-political struggles between Jewish and Greco-Roman cultures in the Levant; later still, between Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Through these conflicts, the pig taboo grew in power. As this rich account illustrates, it came to define the relations between pigs and people in the Near East and beyond, up to the present day.
Chapter 1. The Power of Pigs
Chapter 2. Animals in a Landscape
Chapter 3. From Paleolithic Wild Boar to Neolithic Pigs
Chapter 4. Out of the Cradle
Chapter 5. Urban Swine and Ritual Pigs in the Bronze Age
Chapter 6. Theorizing the Taboo
Chapter 7. The Coming of the Taboo - Pigs in The Iron Age
Chapter 8. Clash of Cultures in the Classical Period
Chapter 9. Islam and the Modern Period
Chapter 10. The Complexity of Swine
Max D. Price is Lecturer in Archaeology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.