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The flora and vegetation of Samothraki, a small but phytogeographically distinct island in the North Aegean area, are presented in Flora of Samothraki based on extensive field work conducted by the authors and their colleagues, and by analysis of relevant literature. An abbreviated and annotated list of the flora is provided, with notes on ecological preferences, altitudinal distribution and frequency of occurrence for the more rare taxa. One representative voucher or literature citation is reported, this applies also for the lists of mosses and lichens. Distribution dot maps for 30 of the more common species are presented. Especially emphasized are 18 taxa which have been published as local endemics restricted to the island. The total number of native and naturalized species of vascular plants in the list is 1,441 species, belonging to 559 genera and 107 families.
In the chapters preceding the species lists, geo-morphological, climate and land use aspects are emphasized, the main vegetation types are discussed as well as the botanical history of the island and phytogeographical relationships. Island endemics and regional endemics are particularly noted as are recent introductions and alien taxa. Of special interest is the flora of the central Saos mountain ridge (1,624 m at peak of Fengari) which has alpine and subalpine elements and a number of characteristic and rare species.