This book is composed based on field investigations by the authors and literature research. These surveys collected 93 families, 305 genera and 452 species (including varieties) of the South China Sea Islands in total, among which, three families, three genera and four species were pteridophyte; four families, four genera and five species (one variety) were gymnosperms; and 85 families, 283 genera and 423 species (including varieties) were angiosperms. Chinese names (including aliases), scientific names (including synonyms), characters, flowering and fruiting period, location and distribution of each species are presented. Family orders are arranged following Ching (1978), Zheng (1975), and Hutchinson (1973) respectively. A few taxa are adjusted according to recent taxonomic revisions. Within each family, scientific names of genera and species are managed alphabetically. This book provides basic information for future studies on the flora, vegetation, biodiversity conservation and sustainable utilization of the South China Sea Islands plants, and is aimed at workers engaged in botany, forestry, agriculture and ecology; as well as at teachers and college students.