About this book
These proceedings consist of papers presented at the 18th IUFRO workshop on Forest Growth Responses to the Pollution Climate of the 21st Century, held in Edinburgh in September 1998. Included are authoritative reviews and experimental evidence of forest growth responses in Europe and North America to the dominant components of air pollution, namely nitrogen and ozone, and their interactions with environmental influences. Nitrogen effects include changes in tree growth, nutrient status and biochemistry. Responses of root mycorrhiza and pathogenic fungi, and changes in trace gas fluxes and soil chemistry are also covered. Effects of the gaseous pollutants, O3, SO2 and O3/CO2 interactions, are discussed in terms of visible injury and biochemical changes.The role and methods of forest health monitoring programmes and the use of bioindicators are evaluated. This book is primarily for people who want a better understanding of how and why forests respond to air pollution, and the implications for the stability of forest ecosystems.
Preface. Acknowledgements. The Global Exposure of Forests to Air Pollutants; D. Fowler, et al. Overview of Recent Growth Trends in European Forests; H. Spiecker. Consequences of N Deposition to Forest Ecosystems -- Recent Results and Future Research Needs; H. Rennenberg, A. Gessler. The Impact of Nitrogen on Forest Soils and Feedbacks on Tree Growth; B.A. Emmett. Atmospheric Input to Danish Spruce Forests and Effects on Soil Acidification and Forest Growth Based on 12 Years Measurements; M.F. Hovmand, J. Bille-Hanssen. The Effect of N Decomposition of Nitrous Oxide and Nitric Oxide Emissions from Temperate Forest Soils; U. Skiba, et al. Nitrogen and Its Effect on Growth, Nutrient Status and Parasite Attacks in Beech and Norway Spruce; W. Fluckiger, S. Braun. Impacts of (NH4)2SO4 Deposition on Norway Spruce (Picea Avies [L.] Kasrt) Roots; M. Carnol, et al. Fate of Nitrogen Compounds Depositied to Spruce (Picea Abies Karst.) and Pine (Pinus Silvestris L.) Forests Located in Different Air Pollutant and Climatic Conditions; T. Staszewski, et al. Simulation of Increased Nitrogen Deposition to a Montane Forest Ecosystem: Partitioning of the Added 15N; P. Schleppi, et al. Some Effects of N on Ectomycorrhizal Diversity of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) in Northeastern Germany; J. Wollecke, et al. Chemical Composition of Air, Soil and Vegetation in Forests of the Silesian Beskid Mountains, Poland; A. Bytnerowicz, et al. Forest Health in North America: Some Perspectives on Actual and Potential Roles of Climate and Air Pollution; S. McLaughlin, K. Percy. Ozone -- A Risk Factor for Trees and Forests in Europe? R. Matyssek, J.L. Innes. Observation and Confirmation of Foliar Ozone Symptoms of Native Plant Species of Switzerland and Southern Spain; J.M. Skelly, et al. Deciduous Conifers: High N Deposition and O3 Exposure Effects on Growth and Biomass Allocation in Ponderosa Pine; N.E. Grulke, L. Balduman. Changes in Free-Radical Scavengers Describe the Susceptibilit of Pinus Ponderosa to Ozone in Southern Californian Forests; M. Tausz, et al. Visible Ozone Injury on Forest Trees in Great Smoky Mountainsw National Park, USA; A. Chappelka, et al. Mature Black Cherry Used as a Bioindicator of Ozone Injury; A. Chappelka, et al. Foliar Symptoms and Growth Reduction of Ailanthus altissima Desf. in an Area with High Ozone and Acidic Deposition in Italy; E. Gravano, et al. The Relative Sensitivity of Different Mediterranean Plant Species to Ozone Exposure; R. Inclan, et al. Biochemical Processes in an Ecosystem: How Should They Be Measured? R.L. Heath. Environmental Limitations to o3 Uptake -- Some Key Results from Young Trees Growing at Elevated CO2 Concentrations; M.S.J. Broadmeadow, et al. Effects of Tropospheric O3 on Trembling Aspen and Interaction with CO2: Results from an O3-Gradient and a Face Experiment; D.F. Karnosky, et al. Responses of Young Trees (Five Species in a Chamber Exposure) to Near-Ambient Ozone Concentrations; M.S. Gunthardt-Goerg, et al. Pigment Concentrations and Ratios of Aleppo Pine Seedlings Exposed to Ozone; S. Manninen, et al. Passive Ozone Monitoring for Forest Health Assessment; R.M. Cox, J.W. Malcolm. Tropospheric Ozone in Alpine Forest Sites: Air Quality Monitoring and Statistical Data Analysis; G. Gerosa, et al. Short-Term Changes of Response Indicators of Ecosystem Status in Broadleaved Forests in Tuscany (Central Italy); M. Ferretti, et al. Growth of Mature Beech in Relation to Ozone and Nitrogen Deposition: An Epidemiological Approach; S. Braun, et al. Difference in Needle Length -- A New and Objective Indicator of Pollution Impact on Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris); M.V. Kozlov, P. Niemela. Implementation of Quality Assurance Procedures in the Italian Programs of Forest Conditon Monitoring; M. Ferretti, et al. Bioindication of Different Stresses in Forest Decline Studies in Slovenia; F. Batic, et al. Can Graphical Vector Analysis be Used to Identify Micro Nutrient Deficiency?; G. Thelin, et al. Relationships Between Crown Condition of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Throughfall Chemistry; J. Neirynck, P. Roskams. Industrial Pollutants Tend to Increase Genetic Diversity: Evidence from Field-Grown European Scots Pine Populations; W. Prus-Glowacki, et al. Among-Provenance Variability of Gas Exchange and Growth in Response to Long-Term Elevated CO2 Exposure; J.L.J. Houpis, et al. Biochemical Responses and Altered Genetic Expression Patterns in Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Doug ex P. Laws) Grown under Elevated CO2; J.C. Pushnik, et al. Treatment of Young Spruce Shoots with SO2 and H2S Effects on Fine Root Chromosomes in Relation to Changes in the Thiol Content and Redox State; A. Wonisch, et al. Effect of UV-B Dose on Biosynthesis of Epicuticular Waxes in Blue Spruce (Picea Pungens Engelmann.) Primary Needles: Preliminary Investigation; D.C. Gordon, K.E. Percy. A New Imitative Model to Predict the Impact of Air Pollutants on Scots Pine Health and Radial Increment; A. Augustaitis. State of Science and Knowledge Gaps with Respect to Air Pollution Impacts on Forests: Report from Concurrent lufro 7.04.00 Working Party Sessions; K. Percy, et al.