Language: Bilingual in English and French
The present gall midge fauna of France includes 668 species, 581 species (87%) of which belong to the subfamily Cecidomyiinae, 54 species (8%) to the subfamily Porricondylinae and 33 species (5%) to the subfamily Lestremiinae. Cecidomyiinae are predominantly phytophagous (85%), including gall makers and inquilines, 8% zoophagous and 2% mycophagous, Porricondylinae and Lestremiinae are phytosaprophagous and mycophagous.
An annotated list of gall midge species is given, the occurrence of each species is shown in the maps (270 maps on Plates I-Vlll) and shape of galls of 215 species is shown in Plates IX-XXXII. The frequency is evaluated according to the number, or numbers, of localities at which an individual gall midge species has been found 1,340 species (51%) very scarcely occur in France, 130 species (19%) scarcely, 85 species (13%) medium frequently, 56 species (8%) frequently, 53 species (8%) very frequently. Dasineura afﬁnis, Iteomyia capreae, Jaapiella veronicae, Macrodiplosis dryobia,
Mikiola fagi and Wachtliella rosarum are the most frequent species in France.
Vertical occurrence: 8 species were found in the Alpine zone of the Pyrenees at altitudes of 1700-2100 m, 23 species at the altitude of 2000 m a.s.l. and 4 species at the altitude of 2058 m a.s.l. in the Hautes-Alpes.
Zoogeography: about 500 species (75%) are European, 85 species (13%) Euro-Siberian. Kochiomyia kochiae on Kochia prostrata is the only one representative of Pontic-Pannonian elements occurring in France. Etsuhoa sabinae on Juniperus sabina and Xerephedromyia ustjurtensis on Ephedra distachya are Euro-Asian species with a disjunct type of distribution. 65 species (10%) are Mediterranean or sub-Mediterranean. 15 species have a Holarctic distribution; most of them are primarily European which were transported to North America with agricultural or forest materials. Janetiela siskiyou on Chamaecyparis lawsoniana and Dasineura gleditchiae on Gleditsia triacanthos are immigrants from North America, Clinodiplosis cattleyae on Cattleya sp. and Asphondylia buddleia on Buddleia variabilis from Central and South America, Rhopalomyia chrysanthemi on cultivated Chrysanthemum plants from Asia, Stenodiplosis sorghicola on Sorghum from the subtropics and tropics.
Economic importance: 40 species were important in agriculture or forestry in the past or still are nowadays; their occurrence is shown in Figs 4-7. Resseliella quercivora is the pest of young oak trees in France at present.
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