Changing environmental conditions substantially affect genetic variation and its dynamics in forest ecosystems and various systems of plantations. In response to these challenges, the present book focuses on the response to stress in terms of case studies which address physiological and genetic characters as well as various metric traits. Furthermore a choice of studies is presented which refers to diversity and geographic variation of various species and site conditions, respectively. In addition, genetic resources are characterised and a variety of studies is compiled which address reproduction and migration as well as management aspects. Finally, a set of studies is presented which focus on forest tree breeding with respect to uncertain climatic futures.
Contributors. Part 1: Verification of Response to Stress. Stress responses in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Cloning and characterisation of an ozone-inducible pinysylvin methyltransferase; H. Chiron, et al. Screening of Sitka spruce genotypes for resistances to the White Pine Weevil in British Columbia; J.N. King, R.I. Alfaro. Genetic variation in two heavily polluted stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L] Karst.) as indicated by nuclear and organelle DNA markers; R. Riegel, et al. Effects of extreme SO2-air pollution in winter 1995/96 on vitality and growth of SO2-tolerant Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) clones in the Ore mountains; H. Wolf. Variation in adaptation and growth as indicated by provenance trial Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco; X. Shen, X. Chen. Influence of nursery environment and pollution on alders; L. Mejnartowicz. Part 2: Genetic Variation under Diverse Environmental Conditions. Small scale spatial genetic structure of six tropical tree species in French Guiana; B. Degen, et al. Genetic variation in natural populations of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze in Brazil; V.A. Sousa, H.H. Hattemer. Microsatellite DNA markers and their usefulness in poplars, and conservation of microsatellite DNA loci in Salicaceae; O.P. Rajora, M.H. Rahman. PCR-RFLP analysis of introns of nuclear genes in Populus and Prunus; B. Heinze. Genetic types in white oak populations north of the Alps and in the Danube valley; U.M. Csaikl, A.O. Konig. Highly polymorphic uniparentally inherited DNA markers for spatial genetic analysis of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations; B. Ziegenhagen, et al. Levels of genetic differentiation in Pinus halepensis Mill. in Spain using quantitative traits, isozymes, RAPDs and cp-microsatellites; R. Alia, et al. Geographical variation of gene diversity of Pinus pinaster Ait. in the Iberian Peninsula; S.C. Gonzalez-Martinez, et al. Is autochthony an operational concept? F.N. Schoppa, H.-R. Gregorius. Part 3: Genetic Resources, Reproduction, Management. Molecular markers in sustainable management, conservation, and restoration of forest genetic resources; O.P. Rajora, A. Mosseler. Sustainable treatment of resources: The genetic basis; H.-R. Gregorius. Genetic diversity and differentiation of individual effective pollen clouds in trees; H.H. Hattemer, et al. Microsatellite analysis of small anonymous seedlot samples from pedunculate oak (Quercus robur): a promising approach to monitor the number of different seed parents and pollen donors; C. Lexer, et al. Fructification and genetic structures of Fagus sylvatica mixed stands in upper regions of the Harz mountains; D. Krabel, et al. Dispersal of seed and effective pollen in small stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.); K. Wang, H.H. Hattemer. Patterns of seed dispersal in a scattered forest tree species (Sorbus torminalis) based on multi-scale investigation of population genetic structure for chloroplast DNA; S. Oddou-Muratorio, et al. Gene flow and mating system in a seedling seed orchard and a natural stand of Pinus merkusii Jungh. et de Vriese in Indonesia; I.Z. Siregar, H.H. Hattemer. The pattern of genetic variation in Pinus nigra subspecies pallasiana natural populations from the Kazdagi and Bolkar mountains, Turkey: Implications for in situ gene conservation; Z. Kaya, et al. Genetic variation of silver fir (Abies alba) in unevenaged forests (`Plenter' forest) in comparison with evenaged forests (Altersklassenwald); M. Konnert, E. Hussendorfer. Part 4: Tree Breeding for Uncertain Future Environments. Multiple population breeding for uncertain climatic futures with Alnus rubra: ecological genetics and selection experiments; A. Hamann, et al. Early growth characteristics of some Abies hybrids; A. Kormutak, B. Vookova. Field testing of model populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) with different genetic structures for reforestation in air polluted regions; H. Hertel, M. Paul. Provenance-environment interactions of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) on German and Hungarian test sites; M. Liesebach, et al.