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About this book
About this book
Examines current controversies surrounding the potential health, environmental, and social impacts of plants produced using molecular biology techniques. Educators, professionals, and practitioners representing a wide range of disciplines, including plant biotechnology, environmental health risk assessment, law, food safety assessment, and bio safety, address the uncertainties of the science, biological risks, national and international governance issues in North and South America, Europe, and Africa, and the need for full public understanding of genetically engineered crops.
About the Editor Contributors Acknowledgments Introduction. Genetic Engineering of Crops: Science Meets Civil Society's Response Abbreviations PART I. SCIENCE AND THE FUTURE Chapter 1. The Birth of Synthetic Biology and the Genetic Mode of Production (Sheldon Krimsky) Biotechnology: Evolution or Revolution First-Generation Fears About Gene Splicing: Laboratory Hazards Emerging Industrial Sectors Second-Generation Controversies: Environmental Releases of GEOs Third-Generation Biotech Controversies: Globalization Conclusion Chapter 2. Controversy Around Terminology and Novelty: Engineered, Modified Biotechnology and Transgenics (Brian Ellis) The Classic Period Mother Nature's Genetic Engineer When in Doubt, Reach for Your Gun The Basic Toolkit Choosing Targets Round Two So Many Genes, So Much Time Conclusions Chapter 3. Transgenic Crops, Agrobiodiversity, and Agroecosystem Function (Miguel A. Altieri) Biotechnology and the Loss of Agrobiodiversity Ecological Effects of Hrcs Ecological Risks of Bt Crops General Conclusions and Recommendations Chapter 4. Ecological Risk Assessment of GE Crops: Getting the Science Fundamentals Right (Michelle Marvier and Sabrina West) Environmental Risk Assessment for GE Crops What Can We Learn from the Longer History of Classical Biological Control Conclusion Chapter 5. Coping with Uncertainty: The Human Health Implications of GE Foods (Paul R. Billings and Peter Shorett) Introduction Food Is a Drug Using Toxicology and Epidemiology to Evaluate Food Safety Substantial Equivalence and Its Consequences Nutrition Allergenicity Toxicity Conclusion Chapter 6. Future Research Tackling the Technology Divide: A Research Agenda for Crop Biotechnology (Michael Korthals) Introduction The Current State of Affairs: Crisis in Governments, Markets, Civil Societies, and Science and Agriculture Plant-Biotechnology and Agriculture Seven Persistent Ethical Problems of Biotechnology Research Agendas of Natural and Social Sciences (Beta-gamma Interaction): Tackling the Problems Conclusion Chapter 7. Next Challenges for Crop GE: Maturing of Governance and Moves Beyond Food Issues (Iain E. P. Taylor) Introduction What Can Plants Do For Us The Environmental Failure The Industrial Incentive The Regulatory Future Aquaculture Forestry Environmental Remediation PART II. ISSUES IN CURRENT GOVERNANCE Chapter 8. A Precautionary Framework for Biotechnology (Katherine Barrett and Conrad G. Brunk) Introduction The Debate About the Precautionary Principle Burden of Proof Standards of Safety Conclusion Chapter 9. The Precautionary Principle and Biotechnology: Guiding a Public Interest Research Agenda (Carolyn Raffensperger) Introduction The Precautionary Principle Ethics Precautionary Research: A New Social Contract Public Money for Private Interest Public Interest Research Local to Global Legal Challenges Chapter 10. Trade, Science, and Canada's Regulatory Framework for Determining the Environmental Safety of GE Crops (Elisabeth A. Abergel) Regulatory and Economic Uncertainty Market Disputes Canada's Risk-Based Approach Herbicide-Tolerant Canola Scientific Uncertainty and the Canadian Regulatory Framework International Trade and Regulatory Harmony Smart Regulations Precaution and Science-Based Regulations Conclusion Chapter 11. Principles Driving U.S. Governance of Agbiotech (Kathleen A. Merrigan) Principle 1: No Special Treatment Principle 2: Invest in Research and Education Principle 3: Strong Property Rights Future Governance Conclusion Chapter 12. Biotechnology Policy in the European Union (Armin Sp k) Introduction Europe versus the European Union The Limited Importance of EE R&D Policy Overall Regulatory Approach Risk Assessment and Decision Making Directive 90/220/EEC The Shortcomings of a Harmonization Tool Diverging Framings in GEO Risk Assessments European Publics: Reluctance and Diverging Attitudes Toward Biotechnology The New Regulatory Regime Conclusions Chapter 13. Regulatory Regimes for GE Crops in Africa (Jennifer A. Thomson) South Africa Kenya Egypt Other Countries Chapter 14. GEO Research and Agribusiness in Brazil: Impact of the Regulatory Framework (Mar lia Regini Nutti, Maria Jos Amstalden Sampaio, and Edson Watanabe) Introduction The Brazilian Legal Framework for GM Crops Embrapa's Biosafety Network The Soybean Saga The Labeling Decree No. 4680 The Cartagena Protocol Current GEO Labeling Legislation in Brazil Food Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Foods Environmental Impacts Final Considerations Chapter 15. Toward a Liability and Compensation Regime Under the Biosafety Protocol (Kristen Dawkins and Josh DuBois) Introduction Suggestions for the Development of Biosafety Liability Rules Damage that Should be Recoverable Remedies Conclusion PART III. CHALLENGES TO CIVIL SOCIETY Chapter 16. Public Spheres Pushing for Change: Public Participation in the Governance of GE Crops (Simon Joss) Introduction Genealogy of Public Debate Participation as Governance Institutional Arenas of Participatory Governance Extrainstitutional Arenas of Participatory Governance Conclusions Chapter 17. Risky Delusions: Misunderstanding science and Misperforming Publics in the GE Crops Issue (Brian Wynne) Introduction Objects of Confusion and Provocation Risk Assessment and Excluded Dimensions of Uncertainty From Unknown Unknowns to Known Uncertainties: A Tacit Culture of Control Confusions of Meaning: Constructing the Public by Listening to It Constructed Risk: Performing Publics and Externalizing Responsibility Conclusions: A Learning Science Index Reference Notes Included