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About this book
About this book
Practical, theory-driven overview of GIS that is supported with clear coverage of basic techniques. This treatment enables readers to understand the broad aspects of GIS without focusing on a specific software or discipline, such as engineering or geography. New features include: up-to-date information on standardization efforts aimed at facilitating the exchange of ideas and data; technical content that is up to date with current hardware, software, database design, and analytical techniques; and comprehensive cost/benefit guidelines for choosing and evaluating a GIS, including coverage of organizational and technical issues. Complete with extensive references and links to online resources.
"One of only a small number of texts devoted to the technology of GIS that are truly introductory in nature. . . . Very readable and of moderate length. Those who are real novices to GIS will find this one attractive." Computers and Geosciences
"Well-rendered and very clear line drawings . . . well written, with a well-balanced blend of technical/theoretical concepts and more applied facts of GIS." Professional Geographer
Foreword. Preface. 1 Geographical Information Systems and Graphical Information. 1.1 Basic Concepts. 1.2 Socioeconomic Challenges. 1.3 Benefits of Computerizing Information. 1.4 Users of GIS. 2 Historical Development: Geographical Data and GIS. 2.1 Early Developments. 2.2 First Automatic Processing of Geographical Information. 2.3 The Microprocessor. 2.4 Recent Developments. 3 From the Real World to GIS. 3.1 The Real World. 3.2 Real World Model. 3.3 Data Model. 3.4 Levels of Measurement. 3.5 From Database to GIS to Map. 3.6 Extension of the Traditional GIS Data Model. 3.7 Conceptual Generalization. 3.8 Role of Maps in Data Modeling. 3.9 Extension of the Reality Concept. 4 Basic Data Models. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Vector Data Model. 4.3 Raster Data Models. 4.4 Automatic Conversion Between Vector and Raster Models. 4.5 Vector Versus Raster Models. 4.6 Attribute Data and Computer Registers. 4.7 Linking Digital Map and Attribute Information. 5 Advanced Data Models. 5.1 Terrain Surface Representation. 5.2 Three dimensional Objects. 5.3 Representation of Time. 5.4 Models for Movable Objects. 5.5 Combination of Models. 6 Georeferencing Systems. 6.1 Datum. 6.2 Coordinate Systems. 6.3 Map Projection. 6.4 UTM. 6.5 Coordinate Conversion and Transformation. 6.6 Elevation Referencing. 6.7 Relative Georeferencing. 6.8 Discrete Georeferencing Systems. 7 Hardware and Communication Technology for GIS Applications. 7.1 Computers. 7.2 Networks. 7.3 Displays. 7.4 Quantizers. 7.5 Plotters and Other Output Devices. 8 Basic Software and Databases for GIS. 8.1 The Foundation Stones of GIS Software. 8.2 Operating Systems. 8.3 Communications Between Users and Computers. 8.4 Database Management Systems. 8.5 Computer Aided Design. 8.6 Multimedia. 8.7 World Wide Web. 8.8 User Requirements. 8.9 Working Environment. 9 Data Collection I. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Digitizing Maps. 9.3 Scanning. 9.4 Manual Digitizing or Scanning. 9.5 Aerial Photographs and Photo Interpretation. 9.6 Remote Sensing. 10 Data Collection II. 10.1 Surveying. 10.2 Satellite Positioning System. 10.3 Photogrammetric Mapping. 10.4 Collection of Attribute Data. 10.5 Text Data. 11 Data Quality. 11.10 Selection Criteria. 11.20 Measuring Accuracy and Precision. 11.30 Resolution and Sampling Rate. 11.40 Data Storage Precision. 11.50 Positional Accuracy. 11.60 Attribute Data Accuracy. 11.70 Temporal Accuracy. 11.80 Logical Consistency. 11.90 Completeness. 11.10 Data Quality Overview Elements. 11.11 Accessibility. 11.12 Probable Sources of Error. 11.13 Quality Control. 12 Database Implementation and Spatial Indexing. 12.1 Database. 12.2 Distributed Databases. 12.3 Databases for Map Data and Indexing. 12.4 Partitioning and Indexing. 12.5 Database Design. 13 Housekeeping Tools. 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 Data Entry Functions. 13.3 Importing Existing Digital Data. 13.4 Organization of Data Storage Operations. 13.5 Functions for Correcting and Adapting Geometric Data for Further Use. 13.6 Editing and Correcting Attribute Data. 14 Basic Spatial Analysis. 14.1 Analysis of Spatial Information. 14.2 Logic Operations. 14.3 General Arithmetic Operations. 14.4 General Statistical Operations. 14.5 Geometric Operations. 14.6 Search and Report Generation from Attribute Data. 14.7 Geometric Data Search and Retrieval. 14.8 Complex Operations of Attribute Data. 14.9 Classification and Reclassification. 14.10 Integrated Processing of Geometry and Attributes. 14.11 Overlay. 14.12 Buffer Zones. 14.13 Raster Data Overlay. 14.14 Procedures in Integrated Data Analyses. 15 Advanced Analysis. 15.1 Network and Raster Connectivity Operations. 15.2 Spatial Interpolation and Proximity Operations. 15.3 Fuzzy Analysis. 15.4 GIS Analytic Models. 15.5 Practical Application of GIS Analytical Functions. 15.6 Digital Terrain Models. 15.7 Hydrologic Modeling. 15.8 Functions for Engineering GIS. 16 Visualization. 16.1 Theoretical Foundation. 16.2 Graphic Generalization. 16.3 Selecting Map Symbols. 16.4 Limitations and Potentials of GIS in Cartographic Communications. 16.5 Final Comments. 17 Choosing a GIS: Organizational Issues. 17.1 Technology and Organization. 17.2 Phases in Organizational Issues. 17.3 Development of a Business Concept and the Identification of Goals. 17.4 Appraisal of Current Tasks, Users, Data, and Data Flow. 17.5 Review of Others' Experience with GIS. 17.6 Identification of User Requirements. 17.7 Financial EvaluationsA--Cost Benefit Analyses. 17.8 Developing a Strategic Plan. 17.9 Developing a Logical Data Model. 17.10 Creating National Geographic Databases and Developing New Business Sectors. 18 Choosing a GIS: Technical Issues. 18.1 Pilot Project. 18.2 Choosing Hardware and Software for GIS. 18.3 Contracts. 18.4 Technical Database Design. 18.5 Creating a Database. 18.6 System Operation and Maintenance. 18.7 Safekeeping and Security Routines. 18.8 Evaluating New Applications. 19 Standards and Geospatial Infrastructure. 19.1 Introduction to Standards. 19.2 Elements for Standardization. 19.3 Standard Transfer Formats. 19.4 Special Standardization Elements. 19.5 Standardization on the Application Level. 19.6 Metadata. 19.7 Infrastructure for Georeferenced Data. 19.8 Data Access and Digital Libraries. 20 Formal Problems in Establishing GIS. 20.1 Ownership and Copyright. 20.2 Cost Recovery and Pricing. 20.3 Public or Private Organization of Geodata. 20.4 Example of Strategy for a National Map Service. 20.5 Data Security. 21 A Vision for the Future. References. Index.
TOR BERNHARDSEN, PhD, is Senior Consultant with Asplan Viak Sor, a Norwegian based firm of consulting engineers working internationally as one of three owners of NORPLAN.