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The latest projections from pre-2004 EU Member States (EU-15) show that greenhouse gas emissions could be brought down to 8.0 % below 1990 levels by 2010. If all existing and planned domestic policy measures are implemented and Kyoto mechanisms as well as carbon sinks are used, the EU-15 will reach its Kyoto Protocol target. This projection relies on figures from several Member States which suggest that they will cut emissions by more than is required to meet their national targets. Existing domestic policies and measures will reduce total EU-15 greenhouse gas emissions by a net effect of 0.6 % from 1990 levels. When additional domestic policies and measures (planned but not yet implemented) are taken into account, the EU-15 could reduce emissions by 4.6 %. The projected use of Kyoto mechanisms by ten of the EU-15 will reduce emissions by a further 2.6 % at a cost of EUR 2 830 million. The use of carbon sinks, such as planting of forests to remove CO2, would contribute an additional 0.8 %. All ten new EU Member States are on track to achieve their individual Kyoto targets, despite rising emissions. This is largely due to economic restructuring in the 1990s.