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Excessive groundwater pumping, groundwater contamination, and subsurface thermal anomalies have occurred frequently in Asian coastal cities, greatly disturbing the urban aquifer and the subsurface environment. In this volume, the relationship between the stage of a city's development and subsurface environment issues have been explored. Intensive field surveys were done in Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei, Bangkok, Jakarta, and Manila. New, advanced methods, including satellite, tracer techniques, and the social economy model, were developed to evaluate subsurface conditions.
Groundwater storage and groundwater recharge rates, as well as the accumulation and transport of pollutants, have been compiled as integrated indices of natural capacities under climate and social changes, and used to evaluate the vulnerability risk for all cities. The indices have been made on a yearly basis for seven cities for a century (1900--2000). Using these indicators it is now possible to manage groundwater resources in a sustainable fashion.
Part I Subsurface Environmental Problems and Urban Development in Asia 1. What are the Subsurface Environmental Problems? Makoto Taniguchi -2. Asian Urbanization and Its Environments Gayl D. Ness -3. Urban Development and Water Environment Changes in Asian Megacities Akihisa Yoshikoshi -4. Comparative Analysis on Land Use Distributions and Their Changes in Asian Mega Cities Akio Yamashita Part II Groundwater Degradation and Resources Management 5. Monitoring Groundwater Variations Using Precise Gravimetry on Land and from Space Yoichi Fukuda -6. The Proposed Groundwater Management for the Greater Jakarta Area, Indonesia Robert M. Delinom -7. Review of Groundwater Management and Land Subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand Oranuj Lorphensri, Anirut Ladawadee, and Surapol Dhammasarn Part III Groundwater Contamination and Loads to the Ocean 8. Detecting Groundwater Inputs into Bangkok Canals Via Radon and Thoron Measurements Supitcha Chanyotha, Makoto Taniguchi, and William C. Burnett -9. Subsurface Pollution in Asian Megacities Shin-ichi Onodera Part IV Subsurface Thermal Anomalies Due to Global Warming and Urbanization 10. Comparisons Between Air and Subsurface Temperatures in Taiwan for the Past Century: A Global Warming Perspective Chieh-Hung Chen, Chung-Ho Wang, Deng-Lung Chen, Yang-Yi Sun, Jann-Yenq Liu, Ta-Kang Yeh, Horng-Yuan Yen, and Shu-Hao Chang -11. Evolution of the Subsurface Thermal Environment in Urban Areas: Studies in Large Cities in East Asia Makoto Yamano -12. Urban Warming and Urban Heat Islands in Taipei, Taiwan Yingjiu Bai, Jehn-Yih Juang, and Akihiko Kondoh Part V Integrated Assessment of Subsurface Environments in Asia 13. Long-Term Urbanization and Land Subsidence in Asian Megacities: An Indicators System Approach Shinji Kaneko and Tomoyo Toyota -14. Sinking Cities and Governmental Action Institutional Responses to Land Subsidence in Osaka and Bangkok Takahiro Endo -15. Chemical and Physical Evidences in the Groundwater Aquifer Caused by Over-Pumping of Groundwater and Their Countermeasures in the Major Asian Coastal Cities Jun Shimada Index