About this book
During the last two decades the development in computer technology has been enormous. This development has of course also influenced the development of ecological models; the models of today are much larger. For instance 3D-models that were hardly used twenty years ago due to the required computer time are generally in use to day. Models considering the spatial distribution are now regularly used whenever a spatial distribution is of importance for the modelling results; it was impossible to run most spatial distribution models on personal computers twenty years ago. As a result, several new model types have emerged, and they are able to solve modeling problems formulated in the 1970s.
Ecological modelling and informatics are two very recent sub-disciplines of ecology. They have opened-up a number of new possibilities for synthesizing and quantifying knowledge in ecology, which is urgently needed in modern environmental management. With the ecological crisis that can be foreseen in the 21st century due to a rapidly expanding population in many countries, rapidly decreasing natural resources in all countries and significant global climate changes, there will be a growing need for ecological modelling and informatics. This handbook will contribute to wider development and application of quantitative ecological approaches, and gives an overview of all modelling types and network calculations that are in use today. The CD included with the book shows 12 different models/network calculations to illustrate the various types and also three softwares that make it possible to develop your own models.
Chapter 1: Introduction: sub-disciplines of ecology and the history of ecological modeling - History of the ecological sub-disciplines; The development of ecological modeling
Chapter 2: Overview of the model types available for ecological modeling - Issues in model development; Increasing number of model types; Characteristics of the model types available today; Applicability of the model types Chapter 3: Ecological informatics: current scope and feature areas - Introduction; Feature areas; Future directions
Chapter 4: Model making - Modelling procedure; Institutionalized modeling; When to apply IMM?
Chapter 5: Ecopath with Ecosim: linking fisheries and ecology - Why ecosystem modeling in fisheries?; The Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) modeling approach; EwE modules and applications; EwE applications; Getting hold of the EwE software; Exercise: trawling cultivates the ocean bottom for squid
Chapter 6: Surface modelling of population distribution - Introduction; YUE-SMPD; An application of YUE-SMPD; Discussion
Chapter 7: Individual-based models - Introduction; Properties of individuals; Model construction; Case study 1: flocking behaviour; Case study 2: population dispersal
Chapter 8: A fuzzy approach to ecological modelling and data analysis - Imprecision, uncertainty and heterogeneity of environmental data; Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic in ecological applications; Fuzzy classification: a fuzzy clustering approach; Fuzzy modelling; Final remarks
Chapter 9: Ecological informatics by means of neural, evolutionary and object-oriented computation - Introduction; Artificial neural networks; Conclusions
Chapter 10: Hybridisation of process-based ecosystem models with evolutionary algorithms: multi-objective optimisation of process and parameter representations of the lake simulation library SALMO-OO - Introduction; Evolutionary algorithm for the optimisation of process representations and parameters; Optimisation of process representations in SALMO-OO by means of EA; Case study of parameter optimisation in SALMO-OO; Conclusions and future work Chapter 11: Biogeochemical models - The characteristics of biogeochemical models; The application of biogeochemical models; Biogeochemical models;Model of sub-surface wetland
Chapter 12: Stochastic population dynamic models as probability networks - Introduction; Methods; Example models and their applications; Availability of models and software
Chapter 13: Structurally dynamic models - Introduction: why structurally dynamic models?; Ecosystem characteristics; Structurally dynamic models; Development of SDM for Darwin's finches; Model of the ectoparasite-bird interactions Chapter 14: Ecotoxicological models - Introduction: characteristics of ecotoxicological models; Classification of ecotoxicological models; The application of parameter estimation methods in ecotoxicological modelling; Biogeochemical and ecotoxicological models: tylosine
Chapter 15: Behavioral methods in ecotoxicology - Why behavioral methods in ecotoxicology?; Monitoring at the individual level; Modeling the gene-individual-population relationships
Chapter 16: Cellular automata - Introduction to cellular automata; Development and application of EcoC A; Development and application of LYC; Discussion
Chapter 17: Rule-based ecological model - Introduction to rule-based technique; Rule-based modelling of algal biomass in Dutch coastal waters; Integrated numerical and rule-based technique; Discussion; User guide for FuzzHab Chapter 18: Network calculations II: a user's manual for EcoNet - Introduction; How to create an EcoNet model; How to run an EcoNet model; Simulation and analysis results; Study of an EcoNet model
Chapter 19: Mediating conceptual knowledge using qualitative reasoning - Introduction; Background and principles; Garp3: QR workbench; Examples of QR models; Assignments; Evaluating QR models; Conclusion and discussion Chapter 20: Models of flow pattern and mass distribution - Introduction; Mohid overview; Finite volumes; Boundaries; Hydrodynamic model; Transport models; Numerical modelling of water properties; Mohid's results; Conclusions Chapter 21: Applications of data mining in ecological modelling - Introduction; Data mining; Applications; Conclusions
Sven Jorgensen is Professor Emeritus at the Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. His research interests include Systems ecology, Ecological modeling, Ecological engineering, Environmental science, and Environmental management of aquatic systems. He is the author of "Eco-Exergy as Sustainability" (published by WIT Press in 2006) and has written or co-authored numerous papers in his field. He has also served as Editor in chief for the "Encyclopedia of Ecology" (2004), as Editor-in-Chief of "Ecological Modelling" (1974), and as Distinguished Visiting Professor at Ohio State University (1991).
Tae-Soo Chon (Ph.D., University of Hawaii at Manoa) is professor of Ecology and Behavior Systems in the Division of Biological Sciences at Pusan National University, Korea. He is the co-author of numerous research papers on ecological modeling and mathematical biology applied to behavior and ecology; ecological informatics in data analysis; community dynamics of benthic macro-invertebrates in streams; water quality evaluation and quantification of ecosystem quality; spatially explicit models in population dispersal; computational behaviors in response to disturbances; and in-situ behavioral biomonitoring. He is Associate Editor of the "International Journal of Ecological Informatics", co-editor of the "International Journal of Ecodynamics" and services on the Editorial boards of "Ecological Modelling", "The ScientificWorld", "International Journal of Limnology", "Ecological Research", and "Encyclopedia of Ecology".
Friedrich A. Recknagel is an associate professor in the Ecology & Evolutionary Biology in the School of Earth and Environmental Science at the University of Adelaide in Australia where he serves as course coordinator for Freshwater Ecology, Integrated Catchment Management, and Ecosystem Modelling. His research interests include lake eutrophication and algal blooms, catchment management by constructed wetlands, ecosystem ecology, ecosystem modelling, and ecological informatics. He is also Editor-in-Chief of the international journal "Ecological Informatics", a member of the Editorial Board of the international journal "Ecological Modelling", a member of the CRC for Water Quality and Treatment, and a member of the Water Research Cluster and the Research Institute for Climate Change at the University of Adelaide.