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About this book
About this book
Provides a comprehensive view of seed biology and its role in crop performance. Key topics include seed germination, crop emergence, crop establishment, dormancy, preharvest sprouting, plant hormones, abscisic and giberellic acids, weeds, grain quality, oil crops, and malting quality. Abundant case studies provide information of value to researchers, students, and professionals in the fields of seed science, field crop research, crop science, agronomy, and seed technology. The book also discusses vital topics which serve as the basis for the development of techniques and processes to improve seed performance and crop yield.
About the Editor Contributors Preface SECTION I: GERMINATION IN THE SOIL AND STAND ESTABLISHMENT Chapter 1. Seedbed Preparation The Soil Physical Environment of Germinating Seeds (Amos Hadas) Introduction Environmental Requirements of Germinating Seed Soil Environment Physical Aspects Seedbed Preparation, Characterization of Seedbed Attributes, and Seedbed Environment Conditions and Seed Germination Water Uptake by Seeds and Seedlings Seed-Soil Water Relationships Modeling Seed Germination and Seedbed Physical Attributes Concluding Remarks Chapter 2. The Use of Population-Based Threshold Models to Describe and Predict the Effects of Seedbed Environment on Germination and Seedling Emergence of Crops (William E. Finch-Savage) Introduction Imbibition Germination Other Germination Models Postgermination Seedling Growth Threshold Models: Prediction of Germination and Emergence Patterns in the Field Summary and Conclusions Appendix Chapter 3. Seed and Agronomic Factors Associated with Germination Under Temperature and Water Stress (Mark A. Bennett) Introduction Seed Coats Seed Size Seed Water Uptake Radicle Emergence and Root System Development Genetic Links to Germination Temperature Limits Seed Production and Seed Vigor Sowing Depths and Planter Technology Tillage Systems and Soil Structure Effects Interactions with Seed Treatments and Other Crop Protection Chemicals Screening Protocols for Germination Tolerance to Low Temperature and Water Stress Concluding Remarks Chapter 4. Methods to Improve Seed Performance in the Field (Peter Halmer) Introduction Changing Seed Form and Lot Composition Physiological Enhancement Physiological Responses to Enhancement Ecological Aspects of Seed Hydration Conclusions and Future Directions SECTION II: DORMANCY AND THE BEHAVIOR OF CROP AND WEED SEEDS Chapter 5. Inception, Maintenance, and Termination of Dormancy in Grain Crops: Physiology, Genetics, and Environmental Control (Roberto L. Benech-Arnold) Introduction Physiology of Dormancy in the Cereal Grain Physiology of Dormancy in the Sunflower Seed The Expression of Dormancy in Grain Crops Removing Dormancy at an Industrial Scale Genetics and Molecular Biology of Dormancy in Grain Crops Environmental Control of Dormancy in Grain Crops Concluding Remarks Chapter 6. Preharvest Sprouting of Cereals (Gary M. Paulsen and Andrew S. Auld) Introduction The Preharvest Sprouting Process Physiological Control of Preharvest Sprouting Quality of Products from Sprouted Cereals Measurement of Preharvest Sprouting Controlling Sprouting by Breeding Controlling Sprouting in the Field Chapter 7. The Exit from Dormancy and the Induction of Germination: Physiological and Molecular Aspects (Rodolfo A. S nchez and R. Alejandra Mella) Introduction The Effects of Light Photoreceptors Embryo Growth Potential Endosperm Weakening Termination of Dormancy: Its Relationship with the Synthesis and Signaling of Gibberellins and ABA Concluding Remarks Chapter 8. Modeling Changes in Dormancy in Weed Soil Seed Banks: Implications for the Prediction of Weed Emergence (Diego Batlla, Betina Claudia Kruk, and Roberto L. Benech-Arnold) Introduction Dormancy: Definitions and Classification How Is Dormancy Level Expressed? Environmental Factors Affecting Dormancy Level of Seed Populations Factors That Terminate Dormancy Conceptualizing the System with Modeling Purposes Modeling Dormancy Changes in Weed Seed Banks As Affected by the Environment Concluding Remarks SECTION III: SEED LONGEVITY AND STORAGE Chapter 9. Orthodox Seed Deterioration and Its Repair (Miller B. McDonald) Introduction The First Seed Seed Deterioration Mechanisms of Orthodox Seed Deterioration Free Radical Production Free Radicals and Their Effects on Lipids How Do Free Radicals Cause Lipid Peroxidation? What Is the Influence of Seed Moisture Content on Free Radical Assault? Do Free Radicals Attack Only Lipids? Why Suspect Free Radical Attack on Mitochondria? How Are Seeds Protected Against Free Radical Attack? Raffinose Oligosaccharides and Their Protective Role Repair of Seed Damage Model of Seed Deterioration and Repair During Priming/Hydration Conclusions Chapter 10. Recalcitrant Seeds (Patricia Berjak and Norman W. Pammenter) Seed Characteristics The Broad Picture Seed Behavior The Suite of Interacting Processes and Mechanisms Involved in Desiccation Tolerance Drying Rate and Causes of Damage in Recalcitrant Seeds SECTION IV: INDUSTRIAL QUALITY OF SEEDS Chapter 11. Processing Quality Requirements for Wheat and Other Cereal Grains (Colin W. Wrigley and Ferenc Bekes) Introduction The Range of Grain Species Used Industrially Cereal Grains and Our Diet Uses of Cereal Grains Wheat-Grain Quality Traits: A Molecular Basis Grain Hardness Starch Properties Conclusion Chapter 12. Grain Quality in Oil Crops (Leonardo Velasco, Bego a P rez-Vich, and Jos M. Fern ndez-Mart nez) Introduction Components of Grain Quality in Oil Crops and Factors Influencing Them Oil Quality Meal Quality Breeding and Production Strategies Chapter 13. The Malting Quality of Barley (Roxana Savin, Valeria S. Passarella, and Jos Luis Molino-Cano) Introduction Grain Structural Components That Affect Malting Quality Genotypic and Environmental Factors Affecting Malting Quality Achieving Barley-Grain Quality Targets Conclusions Index Reference Notes Included