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The loaches of the subfamily Nemacheilinae occuring in the Irrawaddy, Salween and Mekong basins South of the Chinese border, in the Mae Nam Chao Phraya basin, in the Malay Peninsula and basins in between are revised. Sixty-two species and nine genera are recognized. Two new genera are described: Sectoria (type species: Nemacheilus atriceps Smith, 1945) and Tuberoschistura (type species: Nem. baenzigeri Kottelat, 1983). Twenty new species are described: four in Nemacheilus, one in Physoschistura, 14 in Schistura and one in Tuberoschistura. Neotypes are designated for Cobitis rubidipinnis Blyth, 1860, C. semizonata Blyth, 1860, C. zonalternans Blyth, 1860, C. cincticauda Blyth, 1860 and Nem. sikmaiensis Hora, 1921. Infundibulatus Menon, 1987 is a junior synonym of Neonoemacheilus Zhu & Guo, 1985. A lectotype is designated for Nem. fowlerianus Smith, 1945. Nemacheilus rubidipinnis mandalayensis Rendahl, 1948 is a synonym of Acanthocobitis botia (Hamilton, 1822), Nem. myrmekia Fowler, 1935 of Schistura desmotes (Fowler, 1934), Nem. deignani Smith, 1945 of S. kohchangensis (Smith, 1933), Nem. thai Fowler, 1934 of S. nicholsi (Smith, 1933), Nem. fowlerianus Smith, 1945 of S. sexcauda (Fowler, 1937), Nem. putaoensis Rendahl, 1948 of S. sikmaiensis (Hora, 1921) and Nem. obscurus Smith, 1945 of S. waltoni (Fowler, 1937). Schistura tirapensis is proposed as a replacement name for Nem. arunachalensis Menon, 1987, a primary junior homonym of Nem. arunachalensis Datta & Barman, 1984.