Freshwater fishes are the most threatened large taxon in the world. While fresh waters are globally scarce (< 0.3% of available surface water) they are an ichthyofaunal ‘hotspot’ with >15 000 species, representing c. 53% of all fishes and 25% of all vertebrates. Fresh water is essential for all life (humans, domestic livestock, wild animals, plants and microorganisms) and freshwater fishes are a direct indicator of the health of our planet. Most of the threats to their survival are human induced. Hence, in the long term, our own future will be jeopardized, unless we recognize the high intrinsic and commercial value of fishes and the supporting ecosystem, and take necessary care. It is essential, therefore, to improve on environmental monitoring and, where appropriate, develop efficient and effective conservation actions. Zoos and aquariums are often well placed to engage in these activities in partnership with others.
The theme for this volume of the International Zoo Yearbook (IZY) picks up on this aspect and reflects aspirations of the Global Aquarium Strategy for Conservation and Sustainability of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA). The volume is also inspired by scientific output from the ‘4th International Zoo and Aquarium Symposium: Global Freshwater Fish Conservation – Linking In Situ and Ex Situ Conservation Actions’. The Symposium was hosted in Chester in 2010 by the North of England Zoological Society (Chester Zoo), the Zoological Society of London (ZSL London Zoo) and the FFSG of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (SSC) and Wetlands International. Delegates represented fish and freshwater interests worldwide in public aquariums, the aquarium hobbyist and fisheries industries, and national and local government agencies. There were also researchers in freshwater ichthyology from universities, museums, scientific institutions and non-governmental conservation organizations. For the first time, representatives of these diverse groups met to share knowledge and explore exciting new collaborative opportunities in conserving freshwater fishes and their habitats. Several of the delegates kindly prepared updates of their original unpublished presentations for publication here and other topical articles were specially commissioned.
The second half of this volume has the regular contributions on developments in the zoo world.
FRESHWATER FISHES AND THEIR CONSERVATION
- Introduction to Freshwater Fishes and Their Conservation / Gordon McGregor Reid 1–5
- Global challenges in freshwater-fish conservation related to public aquariums and the aquarium industry / G. McG. Reid, T. Contreras MacBeath, K. Csatádi 6–45
- Progress towards a global assessment of the status of freshwater fishes (Pisces) for the IUCN Red List: application to conservation programmes in zoos and aquariums / S. F. Carrizo, K. G. Smith, W. R. T. Darwall 46–64
- Conserving the freshwater fishes of South America / R. E. Reis 65–70
- Conservation of freshwater habitats and fishes in the Western Ghats of India / R. Kumar, K. R. Devi 71–80
- Climate-change impact considerations for freshwater-fish conservation, with special reference to the aquarium and zoo community / P. Pearce-Kelly, S. Khela, C. Ferri, D. Field 81–92
- Breeding programme priorities and management techniques for native and exotic freshwater fishes in Europe / H. Koldewey, A. Cliffe, B. Zimmerman 93–101
- Managing mycobacteriosis and associated biosecurity in the care and breeding of threatened freshwater fishes in public aquariums: an overview / A. Routh 102–111
- Husbandry of a Lake Victoria cichlid, the Pitch-black fulu Haplochromis piceatus, in public aquariums: a 20 year retrospective / J. Hemdal, E. McMullin 112–119
- Conservation breeding of Shortfin eels Anguilla australis and Giant kokopu Galaxias argenteus at Mahurangi Technical Institute using aquarium and aquaculture techniques / Q. O'Brien, D. Cooper 120–128
- Ex situ and in situ approaches, including assisted reproduction, for the conservation of native species of charr (Salmonidae) and whitefish (Coregonidae) in Scotland / P. S. Maitland, A. A. Lyle 129–139
- We all live downstream: engaging partners and visitors in freshwater fish reintroduction programmes / A. L. George, M. T. Hamilton, K. F. Alford 140–150
DEVELOPING ZOO WORLD
- Notes on husbandry, reproduction and development in the Pacific horned frog Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Anura: Ceratophryidae), with comments on its amplexus / D. A. Ortiz, D. Almeida-Reinoso, L. A. Coloma 151–162
- Using environmental enrichment to reduce the expression of abnormal behaviours in Greater rhea Rhea americana at Belo Horizonte Zoo / C. S. de Azevedo, M. F. F. Lima, C. F. Cipreste, R. J. Young, M. Rodrigues 163–170
- Husbandry training, using positive reinforcement techniques, for Marabou stork Leptoptilos crumeniferus at Edinburgh Zoo / R. Miller, C. E. King 171–180
- Management and husbandry guidelines for Shoebills Balaeniceps rex in captivity / A. Muir, C. E. King 181–189
- Fatty-acid, amino-acid and mineral composition of two milk replacers for marsupials / L.-T. Chuang, T. L. Pinfold, H.-Y. Hu, Y.-S. Chen, J. Schulze, J. M. Presley, G. Irons, R. H. Glew 190–199
- Epilepsy in Bolivian Black-capped squirrel monkeys Saimiri boliviensis at ZSL London Zoo: management and implications for captive-breeding programme / Y. Feltrer, T. Strike, E. Flach, A. Routh 200–203
- Brucella abortus and Brucella canis in captive wild felids in Brazil / A. B. P. F. Almeida, C. P. A. Silva, L. C. Pitchenin, M. A. A. Dahroug, G. C. P. da Silva, V. R. F. Sousa, R. L. de Souza, L. Nakazato, V. Dutra 204–207
- A conceptual approach to density-dependent management of zoo animals kept in herds / D. W. H. Müller, S. Hammer, C. Hammer, J.-M. Hatt, M. Clauss 208–218
- Evaluation of the Municipal Zoological Garden in Łódź, Poland, during the preparation of a development strategy / R. Zubkowicz 219–230
- Zoos and Aquariums of the World 231–388
- Index to List of Zoos and Aquariums of the World 389–405
- International Studbooks for Rare Species of Wild Animals in Captivity 406–431
- Author Index to Volume 47 432–433
- Subject Index to Volume 47 434–447
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