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The authoritative guide to landslide investigation, evaluation, and mitigation design Landslides in Practice combines clearly written descriptions and real-life case histories in an authoritative, practical guide to landslide investigation, evaluation, and mitigation design. It presents state-of-the-art investigative techniques and practical information on proven remediation techniques and technologies, including handy checklists for undertaking an initial field examination of a landslide.
Landslides in Practice describes the technical tools needed to study landslides-site investigations, soil shear strength properties, and slope stability analyses-and details forty-five methods for stabilizing landslides or preventing instability in soils from occurring. Most remediation techniques are keyed to the ENR Construction Cost Index to help readers determine a rough estimate of the costs associated with the various techniques. To-the-point summaries explain presented techniques without confusing jargon, and dozens of succinct case histories integrated throughout the book serve as useful examples. In addition, twelve expanded case histories illustrate in depth many aspects of the landslide events and remediation strategies covered.
Relative Cost of Construction.Metric Conversions.About This Book.About the Author.Preface.Acknowledgments.PART A: INVESTIGATIONS AND ANALYSES.Chapter 1: Landslides.1.1 Scope of the Book.1.2 Landslide Descriptions.1.3 Landslide Classification.1.4 Prevention of Landslides.1.5 Remediation of Landslides.Chapter 2: Landslide Occurrences.2.1 Rainfall.2.2 Springs and Seepage.2.3 Irrigation and Aqueducts.2.4 Weathering.2.5 Fills.2.6 Earth Dams and Reservoirs.2.7 Cuts.2.8 Artesian Pressures.2.9 Concentrated Water Sources.2.10 River Erosion.2.11 Coastal Erosion.2.12 Subaerial Submarine Flow Slides.2.13 Debris Flow.2.14 Ancient Landslide Reactivation.2.15 Delayed Failure.2.16 Earthquakes.2.17 Rock Slopes.2.18 Loess Slopes.2.19 Highly Sensitive Silt and Clay.Chapter 3: Field Investigations.3.1 Scope of Site Investigations.3.2 Preliminary Site Investigation.3.3 Geological Mapping.3.4 Topography.3.5 Survey Monitoring.3.6 Difficult Access.3.7 Overburden Drilling.3.8 Standard Penetration Test.3.9 Relatively Undisturbed Sampling.3.10 Test Pits,Trenches, Shafts, and Adits.3.11 Geophysical Explorations.3.12 Field Vane Test.Chapter 4: Inclinometers and Piezometers.4.1 Inclinometers.4.2 Piezometers.4.3 Automatic Data Acquisition Systems.Chapter 5: Groundwater.5.1 Groundwater Profile.5.2 Groundwater Flow along a Shear Zone.5.3 Effect of Rainfall on Groundwater Levels.5.4 Selection of Groundwater Levels in a Stability Analysis.5.5 Measurements of Field Permeability.Chapter 6: Laboratory Shear Strength Measurements on Soils.6.1 Basic Concepts.6.2 Principle of Effective Stress.6.3 Pore Pressure Parameters A and B.6.4 Triaxial Tests.6.5 Shear Box Test.6.6 Ring Shear Test.6.7 Plane Strain Test.6.8 Mohr Diagram.6.9 Liquefaction Test.6.10 Additional Laboratory Shear Strength Tests.Chapter 7: Properties of Sands and Other Cohesionless Soils.7.1 Classification.7.2 Gradation and Engineering Properties.7.3 Relative Density.7.4 Angle of Repose.7.5 Laboratory Drained Strength of Sand.7.6 Drained Strength Estimates.7.7 Selection of Drained Shear Strength of Sands for Stability Analysis.7.8 Laboratory Undrained Strength of Sands.7.9 Active, Passive, and At-Rest Earth Pressure Coefficients.7.10 Field Behavior of Sands and Other Cohesionless Soils.Chapter 8: Properties of Clays and Cohesive Soils.8.1 Description and Classification of Silts and Clays.8.2 Silt and Clay Classification Using Cohesive Index.8.3 Silt and Clay Consistency.8.4 Rate of Consolidation.8.5 Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays.8.6 Laboratory Drained Strength of Clays and Silts.8.7 Laboratory Undrained Strength of Clays and Silts.8.8 Residual Strength of Clay.8.9 Normally Consolidated Clay: Short-Term Stability.8.10 Normally Consolidated Clay: Long-Term Stability.8.11 Overconsolidated Clay: Short-Term Stability.8.12 Overconsolidated Clay: Long-Term Stability.8.13 Shear Movements and Failure in Overconsolidated Clay Slopes .Chapter 9: Slope Stability Analyses.9.1 Measurement of Soil Density.9.2 Total Stress and Effective Stress Analyses.9.3 Landslide Shear Surfaces.9.4 Back Analyses.9.5 Vertical Cut in Clay.9.6 Infinite Slope Analysis.9.7 Double-Wedge Analysis.9.8 Triple-Wedge Analysis.9.9 Circular Arc Analysis.9.10 Other Circular and Noncircular Stability Analyses.9.11 Special Cases: (a) Partly Submerged Slope.9.12 Special Cases: (b) Partly Consolidated Soils.9.13 Special Cases: (c) Artesian Pressures.9.14 Special Cases: (d) Pile Resistance.9.15 Special Cases: (e) Rapid Drawdown Analysis.9.16 Special Cases: (f) Three-Dimensional Analysis.9.17 Special Cases: (g) Unsaturated Soils.9.18 Stability Charts.9.19 Neutral Line Concept.Chapter 10: Stability Margin.10.1 Factor of Safety.10.2 Original Profile Analysis.10.3 Observational Method.10.4 Reliability Analysis (Taylor Series Method).Chapter 11: Erosion Control.11.1 Filter Design.11.2 Riprap Design.11.3 Fabrics.Chapter 12: Earthquake-Induced Landslides.12.1 Liquefaction Analysis.12.2 Pseudostatic Analysis.12.3 Displacement of Marginally Stable Slopes.PART B: REMEDIAL AND PREVENTATIVE OPTIONS.Chapter 13: Common Issues in Remediation.13.1 What Is Sufficient Remediation?13.2 Groundwater Lowering.13.3 Filter and Drainage Layers.13.4 Hard, Crushed Rockfill Properties and Construction.13.5 Temporary Excavations and Closely Sequenced Construction.13.6 Conceptual Construction Contract Costs.Chapter 14: Alternatives to Full Remediation of a Landslide.14.1 No Action.14.2 Maintenance.14.3 Observations.14.4 Avoidance.14.5 Selective Stabilization.14.6 Marginal Stabilization.Chapter 15: Earthworks.15.1 Earthworks Overview.15.2 Slope Regrading.15.3 External Buttress.15.4 Infill Buttress.15.5 Replacement Buttress.15.6 Shear Key.15.7 Earthwork Specifications for Compacted Fill.Chapter 16: Erosion Control Measures.16.1 Filter Systems.16.2 Reverse Filters.16.3 Riprap Slope Armor.16.4 Grouted Riprap.16.5 Gabion Mattresses.16.6 Shotcrete.16.7 Chunam Plaster.16.8 Bioremediation.16.9 Concrete Block Systems.16.10 Trenchfill Revetment.Chapter 17: Dewatering Systems.17.1 Common Dewatering Issues.17.2 Horizontal Drains.17.3 Trench Drains.17.4 French Drains.17.5 Drainage Blanket.17.6 Deep Wells.17.7 Wellpoint and Ejector Systems.17.8 Relief Wells.17.9 Vertical Gravity Drains.17.10 Tunnels and Drainage Adits.17.11 Vertical Shaft with Drainage Array.17.12 Control of Surface Water and Water-Carrying Pipes.17.13 Dewatering through Consolidation.17.14 Prefabricated Vertical Drains.Chapter 18: Seepage Barriers.18.1 Slurry Trench Cutoff Walls.18.2 Slope Liners.18.3 Grout Curtains.18.4 Soil Mix Walls.Chapter 19: Retaining Walls.19.1 Retaining Walls Overview.19.2 Ground Anchors (Tiebacks).19.3 Anchor Block and Element Walls.19.4 Tied-Back Soldier Pile Walls.19.5 Concrete Shear Pile Walls.19.6 Tied-Back Slurry Trench Concrete Walls.19.7 Masonry and Concrete Gravity Walls.19.8 Concrete Cantilever Walls.19.9 Concrete Crib Walls.19.10 Bin Walls.19.11 Gabion Walls.Chapter 20: Earth Reinforcement Systems.20.1 Soil Nailing.20.2 Micropiles.20.3 Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls.Chapter 21: Liquefaction Mitigation Techniques.21.1 Compaction Grouting.21.2 Dynamic Compaction.21.3 Vibro-Compaction.21.4 Stone Columns (Vibro-Replacement).21.5 Excavation and Replacement.21.6 Deep Soil Mixing.Chapter 22: Slip Surface Strengthening.22.1 Isolated Shear Piles (Dowel Piles).22.2 Other Techniques.Chapter 23: Landslide Hazard.23.1 Landslide Hazard Mapping.23.2 Rockfall Hazard Rating System.PART C: SELECTED CASE HISTORIES.Case History 1: Washington Park Reservoirs Slide.Case History 2: Beaver Shoreline Erosion.Case History 3: Bonners Ferry Slide.Case History 4: Washington Park Station Slide.Case History 5: Pelton Park Slide.Case History 6: Pelton Upper Slide.Case History 7: Skagway Marine Slide.Case History 8: Faraday Slide.Case History 9: Goat Lick Slide.Case History 10: Hagg Lake, Slides 4 and 3.Case History 11: Hagg Lake, Slide 6 .Case History 12: Crown Point Highway Rock Slide.References.Credits.Case History Cross-References.Index.
Derek H. Cornforth, PhD, PE, is the founder of Cornforth Consultants, Inc. and Landslide Technology, which has studied and remediated hundreds of landslides in the western United States, Alaska, and abroad. He has served on national committees for ASCE and the British Geotechnical Society.
The author is to be congratulated on writing a book that addresses the needs of practice, in manner that is both informative and precise. (Geotechnical News, Vol 23 (2) June 2005)