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Lichens to Biomonitor the Environment embodies the detailed account about unique symbionts i.e. Lichens in ecosystem monitoring.
The first chapter deals with unique characteristics features of lichens which facilitate their survival in extreme climates and makes them an ideal organism for ecosystem monitoring. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are known to protect lichens against increasing environmental stresses therefore the second chapter provides insight into various chromatographic and modern spectroscopic techniques involved in separation and characterization of lichen substances.
The third chapter elaborates the criteria for selection of biomonitoring species and characters of host plant that influences lichen diversity and details about different lichen species utilized for biomonitoring. One can retrieve preliminary information about the air quality based on the lichen community structure and distribution of bioindicator species as lichen communities/indicator species provides valuable information about the natural/anthropogenic induced changes in the microclimate and land-use changes due to human activity. Therefore, for identification of species, a key to genera and species provides concise information to identify the lichen species based on their morphological and anatomical characters and chemicals present.
Keys provided in Chapter 4 will help the beginners to identify some common lichen species based on the distribution in different climatic zones of India. The section also provides comprehensive information about the bioindicator communities and bioindicator species from India. Chapter 5 provides the details of factors affecting the ecosystem (natural as well as anthropogenic disturbances) and role of lichens in ecosystem monitoring in India has been discussed in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the need and utility of indicator species especially lichen biomonitoring data in sustainable forest management and conservation.
The content in Lichens to Biomonitor the Environment will be a valuable resource for researchers from different fields and will provide an essential reference for people interested in lichens and its role in ecosystem monitoring. Lichens to Biomonitor the Environment will also hopefully popularize lichenological studies in India and will generate more active participation of lichen biomonitoring studies in management and conservation of natural resources in India.
1.1 About lichens
1.2 Development and establishment
1.3 Role of lichens in soil establishment and biodeterioration
1.4 Effect of microclimatic condition on lichen diversity
2. Secondary metabolites and its isolation & characterization
2.1 Environmental role of lichen substances
2.2 Biosynthetic pathways of lichen secondary metabolites
2.3 Isolation and modern spectroscopic techniques involved in characterization of lichen substances
3. Selection of biomonitoring species
3.1 Criteria for selection of biomonitoring species
3.2 Biomonitoring species (world and India)
3.3 Host plants for lichen colonization
4. Toxitolerant lichens in different lichenogeographical regions of India
4.1. Distribution and diversity of widespread and rare lichen species in different lichenogeographical regions along with its pollution sensitivity
4.2. Key for identification of toxitolerant lichens in different lichenogeographical regions
4.3 Bioindicator lichen communities/species
5. Ecosystem monitoring
5.1 Natural and human disturbances/disasters
5.1.1 Heavy metal
5.1.2 Arsenic (Metalloids)
5.1.3 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
5.1.5 Climate Change
5.1.6 Assessment of paleoclimatic conditions (Lichenometry)
5.1.7 Loss of Biodiversity
5.2 Solely human disturbances/disasters (Economic development)
5.2.1 Urbanisation, Expanding cities and Industrialization
5.2.2 Power plants
5.2.3 Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
5.2.4 Peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN)
5.2.5 Ozone (O3)
5.2.6 Increasing Tourism
6. Management and conservational approaches
Vertika Shukla is M.Sc. in Organic Chemistry and Ph.D. (2003) in Chemistry of lichens from H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal). Presently, she is working on Indian lichens for monitoring environmental pollution. Dr. Shukla has 10 years of post doctoral research experience in the field of lichenology and already completed two post doc fellowships awarded by Department of Science and Technology (DST, New Delhi) and till now she has published 41 scientific articles. Dr. Shukla contributed much on secondary metabolite chemistry, interaction of lichens with the environment, spatio-temporal behaviour of pollutants and role of lichens in bioremediation of atmospheric fallouts.
Rajesh Bajpai is M.Sc. in Environmental Science and Ph.D. in 2009 from Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (Central) University, Lucknow, is working as DST- Scientist in Lichenology Laboratory of CSIR-NBRI, Lucknow. Dr. Bajpai has published 20 research papers in various national and international journals on accumulation of different metals including arsenic. Dr. Bajpai has carried out extensive research work on the interaction of lichen with the environment and arsenic pollution, role of lichens in phytoremediation and biodeterioration.
D.K. Upreti, Head of Lichenology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, is Ph.D. (1983) in Botany from Lucknow University under the guidance of Dr. D.D. Awasthi. Dr. Upreti has 30 years of research experience and has published more than 250 research papers in peer-reviewed journals and coauthored three books. Apart from taxonomy, Dr. Upreti has also carried out extensive research on ecology, lichen chemistry, pollution monitoring, in vitro culture and biodeterioration studies of Indian lichens. Dr. Upreti had been to Antarctica in 1991-1992 and is also the member of steering committee of CSIR for Antarctic Researches. He is the Indian corresponding member to British Lichen Society and International Association for Lichenology.