384 pages, 489 illustrations, 17 tables
Lakes and wetlands, ecologically impaired to various degrees by pollution and exploitation are a sad reality not only in Europe, but around the globe.
But wait: Ecological restoration of these ecosystems is possible! Sven Björk, the pioneer and long-time practitioner of ecological lake restoration describes well-illustrated, practical examples (before and after) of the restoration of different types of damaged aquatic ecosystems and discusses tailor-made approaches to rehabilitate their individual ecological structure and functions. The crucial importance of the relationship between catchment area and the associated lake/wetland in selecting the "right" approach and thus successful restoration is pointed out and discussed.
Reference cases of restoration projects on lakes and wetlands at different latitudes and altitudes all over the globe are described and discussed, including such cases where ecological restoration was carried out by contractors, with more and sometimes less success. All experience indicates the need of skilled limnologists and other ecologists to guide such procedures from inception to conclusion, to reach the final aim of restoring a sustainably functioning ecosystem. Experience and knowledge gained in restoration projects, on the processes and approaches that transform turbid green, cyanobacteria-infested lakes into blue waters or how drained, subsiding marshes are converted into wetlands of high biodiversity turn experienced ecologists into specialists in demand in research and administration.
The feeling of exultation that follows the observation that an aquatic ecosystem – degraded by man – finally has been restored to "normal" life, definitely motivates the classification of this kind of applied ecology as an activity of the Fine Arts.
Björk's instructive book is aimed both at administrators seeking approaches and help to fix ailing aquatic systems and also at aquatic ecologists interested in designing tailor-made methods for restoring, monitoring and documenting the results of eco-medical operations on lakes and wetlands.
I. The Fine Art of Restoring Aquatic Ecosystems 7
Historical Notes 7
From Restoration of Individual Ecosystems to Redevelopment
of Landscape Units. Terms and Aims 8
Redevelopment of Ecosystems in the Perspective of the
EU Water Framework Directive 11
Anthropocenic Lakes and Wetlands 13
II. Restoration Projects 17
Possibilities and Problems to Realize Limnological Restoration
Selected Examples of Projects 17
1. Swedish Model and Demonstration Projects 19
A. Lake Trummen 20
B. Lake Hornborga 72
C. Other Types of Management/Restoration Methods 116
a. Aeration 117
b. Sediment Treatment 122
c. Treatment of Acidified Lakes 124
2. Restoration Projects Abroad 128
a. Lac de Tunis, Tunisia 129
b. Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 151
c. Lago Paranoá, Brasília, Brazil 163
d. The West Lake, Hangzhou, China 176
e. The Hongyuan Wetlands, Tibet 186
f. The Negril and Black River Wetlands, Jamaica 218
g. The Pahlavi Mordab Wetland, Iran 260
h. Rio Bogota, Colombia, and Lake Skärgölen, Sweden 294
III. Conditions and Actions Aggravating Anthropocenic Nature. Examples from Sweden 328
A. The judicial system for environmental protection – as it is applied 329
B. Pollution from point sources 330
C. Surface-covering exploitation of the landscape 331
D. Fragmentation of the landscape 336
E. Irrevocable prevention of wetland restorative measures following road construction With the Vesan – Pukavik Bay as an example 336
F. Recent governmental initiatives 357
G. Conclusions 361
IV. Swedish Ecologists/Geologists of Restoration Teams
Described in this Book 362
The Author’s Background and Acknowledgements 364
Further Reading 368
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