There was a time when forests lined this river, providing ample habitat for wildlife – and people lived harmoniously with them. But times have changed – today, the forests are in isolated patches, barely enough for the wildlife to survive. Instead, oil palm plantations have flourished and expanded, sometimes very near to the riverbanks. Due to sediment and the use of chemicals, the river is now polluted. Indigenous people complain of lower harvests from the river and dead fishes floating in the river during heavy downpours, when chemicals are washed down into the river system. It is time for action. An expedition to the Lower Kinabatangan was organized during 2nd May to 2nd June 2002.
About 70 scientists and their assistants participated from several agencies within Sabah, as well as from Peninsular Malaysia. Colleagues from Japan under the Bornean Biodiversity and Ecosystem Conservation (BBEC) programme also participated. In addition collaborators from the United Kingdom, involved in joint research and training on genetic conservation of Orang-utans at Kinabatangan were also present. This joint collaborative research is funded by the Darwin Initiative, United Kingdom.
The well known couple from the non-govemmental organisation HUTAN, Isabelle and Marc Ancrenaz, who are organizing the Kinabatangan Orang-Utan Conservation Project (KOCP), and their staff participated and contributed tremendously by providing logistics and the base camp for the one-month expedition. This expedition was organized jointly between Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA), KOCP, Sabah Wildlife Department and Darwin Initiative. It was also supported by WWF Malaysia (Partners for Wetlands Programme).
FOREWORD by The Vice-Chancellor, UMS vii
PREFACE by Takahisa Kusano viii
MESSAGE by Geoffrey Davison x
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY by Maryati Mohamad 1
1. Preliminary List of Ants Collected from Three Sites at Lower Kinabatangan River Maryati Mohamed 5
2. Species List of Ground and Leaf Litter Ants Collected in Lower Kinabatangan Yoshiaki Hashimoto, Yuko Morimoto and Maryati Mohamed 13
3. Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) Fauna of Kinabatangan Wildlife Sacntuary Mohd. Fairus Jalil, Jacqeline P. King, Mahadimenakbar M. Dawood, Nordin Wahid, Hazarinah Harith and Maryati Mohamed 19
4. Preliminary Survey of Fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in Lower Kinabatangan, Sabah Mahadimenakbar M. Dawood 27
5. A Boat Survey of Primates in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary Benoit Goossens, Joanna M. Setchell, Datu Md. Abulani, Mohd. Fairus Jalil, Suzita Sheena James and Sailun Aris 37
6. Preliminary Results Concerning the Status of the Kinabatangan Gibbon Population Marc Ancrenaz, Joanna M. Setchell, Suzita Sheena James, Jamil Synior, Karim Hj. Dakog, Agung Daudi Seventri and Benoit Goosens 47
7. The Ecology and Demography of Opisthostoma 55
8. Preliminary List of Moses from Lower Kinabatangan Monica Suleiman, Andi Maryani Mustapeng and Nooraini @ Surnarti Makladin 73
9. Additions to the list of Vascular Plants from Lower Kinabatangan Johnny Gisil, Monica Suleiman, Rhema D. Maripa and Mohd. Fairus Jalil 77
10. Collection of Wild Yam (Araceae) for Extraction and Identification of Phytosterol Perumal Ramasamy 83
11. Searching for Inhibitors against MAPK Kinase (MKK1), Protein Phosphatases (MSG5, GLC7) and Isocitrate Lyase (ICL) from Actinomycetes and Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Lower Kinabatangan Heng Hong Lee, Tan I@Tan Yee, Tan Joon Sheong, Ho Wei Loon, Lee Seok Hoon, Tee Lay Kun, Gan Siew Ping, Chan Soy Yi and Ho Coy Choke 89
III. Socio-economic and Human Dimension
12. Plants Used in the Traditional Healthcare of the Orang Sungai Communities in the Kinabatangan Floodplain Mashitah Mohd. Yusoff, Avelinah Julius and Maryati Mohamed 121
Preliminary Study on Ethnozoology of the Lower Kinabatangan Orang Sungai Maryati Mohamed, Mashitah Yusoff and Hainidah Jamlee 139
14. Perceptions of Local Communities on Nature Tourism Activities at Lower Kinabatangan Zulhazman Hamzah, Maryati Mohamed and Noraini Nasarudin 147
Nature Tourism and Lodge Management in Kinabatangan Area Masaaki Yoneda 159