Books  Sustainable Development  Water Resources & Management  Freshwater Resources & Management 

Modeling Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport

Series: Theory and Applications of Transport in Porous Media Volume: 23

By: Jacob Bear and Alexander HD Cheng

854 pages, 250 b/w illus


Hardback | Dec 2009 | #183726 | ISBN-13: 9781402066818
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1 week Details
NHBS Price: £72.00 $99/€81 approx

About this book

In many parts of the world, groundwater resources are under increasing threat from growing demands, wasteful use and contamination. To face the challenge, good planning and management practices are needed.

A key to the management of groundwater is the ability to model the movement of fluids and contaminants. The purpose of this book is to construct conceptual and mathematical models that can provide the information required for making decisions associated with the management of groundwater resources, and the remediation of contaminated aquifers.

This book is a comprehensive and authoritative treatise of groundwater flow and transport modeling. It provides easy-to-follow descriptions of basic concepts, governing equations, relevant parameters, methods of measurement and observation, numerical solution methods, and interpretation of results, for real-world situations. It is a must have" for students, teachers, researchers, engineers, and managers in subsurface hydrology and management." S.M. Hassanizadeh, Professor of Hydrogeology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands "A very comprehensive and well written textbook that addresses the formulation of both conceptual and mathematical models to predict flow and transport through porous media and to make decisions for a sustainable development of the subsurface resources and remediation of contaminated groundwater based on optimal management under uncertainty. The readers who are potentially interested include practitioners, modelers, managers and researchers as well as students at the graduate and upper undergraduate level in civil and environmental engineering." Giuseppe Gambolati, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Italy "This book is a must for researchers as well as practitioners who are interested in understanding the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of groundwater modeling issues." Prabhakar Clement, Arthur H. Feagin Chair of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, USA "I teach three graduate courses, "Introduction to Modeling Transport Phenomena for Aquifer Remediation", "Modeling Flow and Transport through Heterogeneous Media", and "Numerical Approximation by the Finite Element Method", to students coming from Natural Sciences and Engineering Sciences areas at my university, and also at several world-wide institutes. This book comprehensively covers a spectrum of theoretical and practical topics addressing quantitative modeling and environmental issues of groundwater flow and transport. I will definitely recommend the book as a valuable reference to my students and colleagues. " Shaul Sorek, Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel "This is an excellent reference book for postgraduate students and researchers in the discipline of groundwater. This book provides detailed information regarding modelling of contaminant transport in porous medium that is particular important for environmental scientists and numerical modellers." Dong-Sheng Jeng, NRP Chair in Civil Engineering, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK "Bear and Cheng have provided a unified and systematic approach in this reference book for engineers and scientists interested in modelling subsurface flow. They presented each chapter with clarity explaining why the topics discussed are of importance. In addition to covering traditional areas of groundwater flow and contaminant transport, the authors provide a good introduction to topics such as uncertainty, optimization and inverse problems which gained importance in recent years." Yavuz Corapcioglu, Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, USA


Preface List of Main Symbols 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Role of Groundwater in Water Resources Systems 1.1.1 The hydrological cycle 1.1.2 Surface water versus groundwater 1.1.3 Characteristics of groundwater 1.1.4 Functions of aquifers 1.1.5 Subsurface contamination 1.2 Introduction to Groundwater Management 1.2.1 Principles of groundwater management 1.2.2 Sustainable yield 1.3 Modeling 1.3.1 Modeling concepts 1.3.2 Modeling process 1.3.3 Model use 1.4 Continuum Approach for Flow Through Porous Media 1.4.1 Phases, chemical species and components 1.4.2 The need for a continuum approach 1.4.3 Representative elementary volume and averages 1.4.4 Scale of heterogeneity in continuum model 1.4.5 Homogenization 1.5 Scope and Organization of Book 2 GROUNDWATER AND AQUIFERS 2.1 Definitions of Aquifers 2.2 Moisture Distribution in a Vertical Soil Profile 2.3 Classification of Aquifers 2.4 Solid Matrix Properties 2.4.1 Soil classification based on grain size distribution 2.4.2 Porosity and void ratio 2.4.3 Specific Surface 2.5 Inhomogeneity and Anisotropy 2.6 Hydraulic Approach to Flow in Aquifers 3 REGIONAL GROUNDWATER BALANCE 3.1 Groundwater Flow and Leakage 3.1.1 Inflow and outflow through aquifer boundaries 3.1.2 Leakage 3.2 Natural Replenishment from Precipitation 3.3 Return Flow from Irrigation and Sewage 3.4 Artificial Recharge 3.4.1 Objectives 3.4.2 Methods 3.5 River-Aquifer Interrelationships 3.6 Springs 3.7 Evapotranspiration 3.8 Pumping and Drainage 3.9 Change in Storage 3.10 Regional Groundwater Balance 4 GROUNDWATER MOTION 4.1 Darcy's Law 4.1.1 The empirical law 4.1.2 Extension to a three-dimensional space 4.1.3 Hydraulic Conductivity 4.1.4 Extension to anisotropic porous media 4.2 Darcy's Law-- Momentum Balance Equation 4.2.1 Darcy's law by volume averaging 4.2.2 Darcy's law by homogenization 4.2.3 Effective hydraulic conductivity by homogenization 4.3 Non-Darcy Law 4.3.1 Range of validity of Darcy's law 4.3.2 Non-Darcian motion equations 4.4 Aquifer Transmissivity 4.5 Dupuit Assumption for a Phreatic Aquifer 5 WATER BALANCES AND COMPLETE FLOWMODELS 5.1 Mass Balance Equations 5.1.1 Fundamental mass balance equation 5.1.2 Deformable porous medium 5.1.3 Specific storativity 5.1.4 Flow equations 5.2 Initial and Boundary Conditions 5.2.1 Boundary surface 5.2.2 Initial and general boundary conditions 5.2.3 Particular boundary conditions 5.3 Complete 3-D Mathematical Flow Model 5.3.1 A well-posed problem 5.3.2 The conceptual model 5.3.3 The standard content of a flow model 5.4 Modeling 2-D Flow in Aquifers 5.4.1 Deriving the 2-d balance equations by integration 5.4.2 Another derivation of the 2-d balance equations 5.4.3 Complete aquifer flow models 5.4.4 Effect of storage changes in an aquitard 5.4.5 Multilayered aquifer-aquitard system 5.4.6 Groundwater maps and streamlines 5.5 Land Subsidence 5.5.1 Integrated water mass balance equation 5.5.2 Integrated equilibrium equation 5.5.3 Comparison between the Terzaghi-Jacob and the Biot approaches 5.5.4 Example: Land subsidence produced by pumping 6 MODELING FLOW IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE 6.1 Statics of Fluids in the Unsaturated Zone 6.1.1 Water content 6.1.2 Surface tension 6.1.3 Capillary pressure 6.1.4 Retention curve 6.1.5 Matric and other potentials 6.1.6 Hysteresis 6.1.7 Saturation distribution along the vertical 6.1.8 Saturation jump at a porous medium discontinuity 6.1.9 Specific yield and field capacity 6.2 Motion Equations 6.2.1 Coupling between the phases 6.2.2 Darcy's law for unsaturated flow 6.2.3 Effective permeability 6.3 Mass Balance Equation and Complete Model 6.3.1 Mass balance equations 6.3.2 Initial and boundary condition 6.3.3 Complete flow model 6.4 Methods of Solution 6.5 Some comments on three fluid phases 6.5.1 Statics 6.5.2 Motion equations 6.5.3 Mass balance equation and complete model 7 MODELING CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT 7.1 Contaminant Fluxes 7.1.1 Measures of phase composition 7.1.2 Advective flux 7.1.3 Diffusive flux 7.1.4 Hydrodynamic dispersion 7.1.5 Dispersive flux 7.1.6 Total flux 7.1.7 Effect of Field-Scale Heterogeneity 7.1.8 A brief introduction to stochastic modeling 7.2 Balance Equation for a Single Species 7.2.1 Single cell model 7.2.2 Fundamental balance equation 7.2.3 Pumping and injection 7.3 Sources and Sinks 7.3.1 Conditions for chemical equilibrium 7.3.2 Equilibrium adsorption 7.3.3 Ion exchange 7.3.4 Equilibrium chemical reactions 7.3.5 Volatilization and dissolution 7.3.6 Nonequilibrium conditions 7.4 Complete Mathematical Model with Sources 7.4.1 Balance equations with sources 7.4.2 Retardation 7.4.3 Initial condition and boundary conditions 7.4.4 Complete model for a single component 7.4.5 Some 1-d analytical solutions 7.4.6 Coping with uncertainty/stochastic, etc. 7.5 Immobile Water and Double Porosity Models 7.5.1 Immobile water 7.5.2 Double porosity medium 7.6 Eulerian-Lagrangian Formulation 7.7 Evaluating Dominance of effects 7.8 Transport Without Dispersion 7.8.1 Transport by advection only 7.8.2 Velocity field 7.8.3 Travel time 7.9 Multiple Components 7.9.1 Radionuclide decay chain 7.9.2 Chemically reacting species 7.9.3 Three multicomponent phases 7.10 Primary Variables 7.11 Remediation Techniques 7.11.1 General considerations 7.11.2 Caps and cutoff walls 7.11.3 Pump and treat 7.11.4 Soil vapor extraction 7.11.5 Air sparging 7.11.6 Permeable reactive barrier 8 NUMERICAL MODELS AND COMPUTER CODES 8.1 Numerical Methods 8.1.1 Finite difference methods 8.1.2 Finite Volume Methods 8.1.3 Finite Element Methods 8.1.4 Other Methods 8.2 Eulerian versus Lagrangian Approaches 8.2.1 Particle Methods 8.3 Computer Codes 9 SEA WATER INTRUSION 9.1 Occurrence 9.2 Sharp Interface Models 9.2.1 The sharp interface 9.2.3 Essentially horizontal flow model 9.2.4 Some analytical solutions for a stationary interface 9.2.5 Multiple layered Aquifers 9.3 Transition Zone Modeling 9.3.1 Variable density model 9.3.2 Computer codes 9.4 Management of a Coastal Aquifer 10 MODELING UNDER UNCERTAINTY 10.1 Sensitivity Analysis 10.2 Stochastic Process and Statistical Moments 10.2.1 Ensemble Average 10.2.2 Temporal Statistics and Ergodicity 10.3 Stochastic Models 10.3.1 Uncertain Hydrological Boundary Conditions 10.3.2 Uncertain Aquifer Parameters 10.3.3 Monte Carlo method and random field generation 10.3.4 Geostatistics and equivalent hydraulic conductivity 11 MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER 11.1 Optimization Problems 11.1.1 Statement of An Optimization Problem 11.1.2 Linear Programming 11.1.3 Gradient Search Method 11.1.4 Evolutional Techniques 11.1.5 Genetic Algorithm 11.2 The Inverse Problem 11.2.1 Pumping Tests 11.2.2 Regional Inverse Problems 11.3 Management Problems References

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