The Monograph on Threatened Freshwater Fishes in South Asia contains geographical distribution, threat status, habitat, species description, biology, conservation measures and a short bibliography of 138 threatened fishes found in freshwater areas of South Asian. The vernacular names listed are a selection of names from individual countries in member states, in particular from areas where the fish is common. The synonyms and vernacular names are those names used internationally and locally. The lists are not complete but reflect the names appearing in official databases. The fishes featured in this monograph were selected by the experts in the field, duly nominated by the respective SAARC member country governments. The purpose of the monograph is to: (1) provide detailed information of the species and threat status, in order to facilitate their conservation by member states; (2) provide models to assist mesber States in developing their own monographs for these or other fishes; (3) facilitate information exchange among member states; and (4) establish joint strategic plans for management of resources, most of which are of inter-state interests. This book is aimed at policy planners, regulatory authorities, environmentalists, conservationists, research scientists, and other fisheries and aquaculture professionals.