The mild and humid climate in the Azores and Madeira favours the growth of mosses and liverworts. More than 500 species were so far found in each archipelago. Many are found else only along the oceanic coastal regions of Europe, some even only on these islands, others are tropical species. The mosses and liverworts of the Azores and Madeira are regarded as relics, which have colonized the islands after their volcanic origin und survived the glaciation periods in Europe. Therefore they give a vivid imagination of the flora of the Tertiary. A selection of 139 of these rare species is illustrated here, either as a help for identification of the less known species or to just enjoy the beauty of these small plants.