The deep ocean is by far the planet's largest biome and holds a wealth of potential natural assets. Human exploitation of the deep ocean is rapidly increasing whilst becoming more visible to many through the popular media, particularly film and television. The scientific literature of deep-sea exploitation and its effects has also rapidly expanded as a direct function of this increased national and global interest in exploitation of deep-sea resources, both biological (e.g. fisheries, genetic resources) and non-biological (e.g. minerals, oil, gas, methane hydrate). At the same time there is a growing interest in deep-sea contamination (including plastics), with many such studies featured in high profile scientific journals and covered by global media outlets. However, there is currently no comprehensive integration of this information in any form and these topics are only superficially covered in classic textbooks on deep-sea biology. This concise and accessible work provides an understanding of the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, both at the seafloor and in the water column, and how these might be affected as a result of human interaction, exploitation and, ultimately, environmental change. It follows a logical progression from geological and physical processes, ecology, biology, and biogeography, to exploitation, management, and conservation.
Natural Capital and Exploitation of the Deep Ocean is aimed at marine biologists and ecologists, oceanographers, fisheries scientists and managers, fish biologists, environmental scientists, and conservation biologists. It will also be of relevance and use to a multi-disciplinary audience of fish and wildlife agencies, NGOs, and government departments involved in deep-sea conservation and management.
1: Introduction: evolution of knowledge, exploration and exploitation of the deep ocean / Maria Baker, Eva Ramirez-Llodra and Paul Alan Tyler
2: A primer on the economics of natural capital and its relevance to deep-sea exploitation and conservation / Porter Hoagland, Di Jin and Stace Beaulieu
3: The legal framework for resource management in the deep sea / Aline Jaeckel, Kristina Gjerde and Duncan Currie
4: Exploitation of deep-sea fisheries / Les Watling, Lissette Victorero, Jeffrey Drazen and Matthew Gianni
5: Deep-sea mining: processes and impacts / Daniel O. B. Jones, Diva J. Amon and Abbie S. A. Chapman
6: The natural capital of offshore oil, gas and methane hydrates in the world oceans / Angelo F. Bernardino, Erik Cordes and Thomas Schlacher
7: The exploitation of deep-sea biodiversity: components, capacity and conservation / Harriet Harden-Davies
8: The deep ocean's link to culture and global processes: non-extractive value of the deep sea / Andrew R. Thurber and Amanda N. Netburn
9: Climate change / Nadine Le Bris and Lisa A. Levin
10: Space, the final resource / S. Kim Juniper, Kate Thornborough, Paul Alan Tyler and Ylenia Randrianarisoa
11: A holistic vision for our future deep ocean / Eva Ramirez-Llodra, Maria Baker and Paul Alan Tyler
Maria Baker is co-lead for the international Deep-Ocean Stewardship Initiative (DOSI) and the International Network for scientific investigation of DEEP-sea ecosystems (INDEEP). The overarching aim of these two programmes is to ensure deep-sea science informs national and international policy process in a way that is unique and essential at this critical time for the future of ocean biodiversity. She organises and chairs workshops, meetings and special sessions, writing accessible, translated texts (including policy briefs) on subject areas concerning, for example, impacts of climate change in the deep ocean, encouraging the engagement of scientists and reporting and budgets are my current focus. Her research activity focuses on anthropogenic impacts on deep-sea ecosystems and sustaining deep-sea biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction.
Eva Ramirez-Llodra is a senior scientist at NIVA (Norway) and Science Coordinator at REV Ocean (Norway). Her main expertise is in marine biodiversity and early life history of deep-sea benthic fauna in relation to anthropogenic stressors, as well as in international project management and an established international network of contacts, including leading/advisory roles in INDEEP and DOSI.
Paul Tyler is Emeritus Professors of Deep-Sea Biology at the University of Southampton, UK. He previously worked with John Gage in the NE Atlantic on RRS Challenger examining life history biology of deep-sea organisms. In the late 1980s, he started deep-sea experimental work on cruises with Craig Young using submersibles in the Bahamas and Gulf of Mexico. In 1994 he was awarded a DSc and a Personal Chair. The research programme involved the Census of Marine Life and the discovery of hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean.
- Diva Amon, Natural History Museum, London UK
- Maria Baker, University of Southampton, UK
- Stace Beaulieu, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA
- Angelo Bernardino, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Brazil
- Abbie Chapman, University of Southampton; Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research, University College London, UK
- Erik Cordes, Temple University, USA
- Duncan Currie, Globelaw, New Zealand
- Jeff Drazden, University of Hawaii, USA
- Matt Gianni, Deep Sea Conservation Coalition, the Netherlands
- Kristina Gjerde, International Union for Conservation of Nature; Middlebury Institute of International Studies, USA
- Harriett Harden-Davies, University of Woolongong, Australia
- Porter Hoagland, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA
- Aline Jaeckel, University of New South Wales, Australia
- Di Jin, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA
- Daniel Jones, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK
- Kim Juniper, University of Victoria, Canada
- Nadine Le Bris, CNRS, France
- Lisa Levin Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, USA
- Amanda Netburn, Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA
- Eva Ramirez-Llodra, Norwegian Institute for Water Research and REV Ocean, Norway
- Ylenia Ranrianarisoa, University of Toamasina, Madagascar
- Thomas Schlacher, University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia
- Kate Thornborough, Independent Researcher, Manly, NSW, Australia
- Andrew Thurber, Oregon State University, USA
- Paul Tyler, University of Southampton, UK
- Lisette Victorero, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
- Les Watling, University of Hawaii, USA
"[...] the overall message is balanced, acknowledging the benefits of using marine resources as well as highlighting our tendency to abuse them. Instead of damning all forms of ocean exploitation, the authors raise pertinent questions about the difficult choices we are faced with."
– Rebecca Nesbit, The Niche, summer 2021