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The first volume of a planned series dealing with the neotropical moth family Notodontidae. A previous publication in Volume 4 of this series, An Illustrated Type Catalogue of the Notodontidae in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. clarified the identity of many neotropical notodontids by designating of 733 lectotypes, which were described primarily by Schaus 1889-1939 and Dognin 1889-1924. The last comprehensive description of American Notodontidae by Draudt 1931-1933 in Seitz contains less than 30% of the species treated here in the revised genera. A checklist of neotropical Notodontidae by Becker (2014) is merely a compilation of names without illustrations or explanations. The many new combinations and synonymies provided by Becker are often not based on comparisons of type material and appears – as shown in this work – sometimes incorrect. The present publication revises the genera Crinodes Herrich-Schäffer, 1855, Moresa Walker, 1855, Chlorosema Becker, 2014 and Rosema Walker, 1855. Twenty taxa are newly synonymized and 12 lectotypes are designated. Out of 114 species, currently treated as valid, 55 are newly described, as are seven subspecies. The high percentage of newly described species in this revision, approximately half, shows how limited our current knowledge of neotropical Notodontidae is.