Nodules produced on legume roots by root-nodule bacteria provide the major nitrogenous input into natural and agricultural systems worldwide. This book provides an in-depth and up-to-the minute analysis of what is known about this symbiosis, its origins, the process of nodule formation and development, and the biochemistry and genetics of nodular nitrogen fixation. It also reviews the physiology of the root-nodule bacteria themselves, their ecology in both natural and agricultural systems, and how we go about introducing new legumes and the bacteria they require. How all the knowledge gained about this system can be applied in the future for better legume-rhizobia functioning in difficult environments is its logical culmination.
Preface to the Series, Preface, List of Contributors, Dedication 1. Evolution and Diversity of Legume Symbiosis: J. I. Sprent 1. Introduction2. The Diversity of Legume Nodules 3. The First 700 Million Years 4. The Last 60 Million Years 5. The Present 6. Conclusions References 2. Ecology of Root-nodule Bacteria of Legumes: P. H. Graham 1. Introduction2. Taxonomy of Root-nodule Bacteria3. Population Structure of Rhizobia in Soil and Rhizosphere4. Above and Below Ground Diversity and Symbiotic Function5. Strain Competitiveness, Rhizosphere Colonization, and Persistence6. Edaphic Factors Affecting Rhizobia7. Future Dimensions of Rhizobial EcologyReferences 3. Maintaining Cooperation in the Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis: Identifying Selection Pressures and Mechanisms: E. T. Kiers, S. A. West and R. F. Denison1. Introduction2. Explaining Cooperation: The Problem 3. Explaining Cooperation: The Hypothesis 4. Cheating and Mixed Nodules5. Future Directions6. ConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferences 4. Inoculation Technology for Legumes: D. F. Herridge1. Introduction2. The Need to Inoculate3. Selection of Rhizobial Strains for Use in Inoculants4. Inoculants in the Market Place5. Pre-inoculated and Custom-inoculated Seed6. Co-inoculation of Legumes with Rhizobia and Other Beneficial Microorganisms7. Quality Control of Legume Inoculants8. Constraints to Inoculant Use and Future Prospects9. Concluding StatementsReferences 5. Fine-tuning of Symbiotic Genes in Rhizobia: Flavonoid Signal Transduction Cascade: H. Kobayashi and W. J. Broughton1. Introduction 2. NODD and NOD-boxes: Central Elements in Transduction of Flanovoid Signals3. Functions of Genes Controlled by NOD-boxes4. Fine-tuning Expression of Symbiotic Genes in Restricted Host-Range Rhizobia5. Post-genomic Studies: Do Flavonoids Regulate Other Genes?6. Conclusion and Perspectives: Roles of Flavonoid-inducible Regulons in Symbiosis, Signaling, and AdaptationReferences 6. Cell Biology of Nodule Infection and Development: N. Maunoury, A. Kondorosi, E. Kondorosi and P. Mergaert1. Introduction2. Nod-factor Signalling 3. Cortical-cell Activation Leading to Primordium Formation and Infection4. Secondary Signals for Nod Factor-induced Cell Activation5. Differentiation of N2-fixing Cells: The Role of Endoreduplication6. Bacteroid Differentiation7. Nitrogen Fixation8. Senescence of NodulesReferences 7. Genetics, A Way to Unravel Molecular Mechanisms Controlling the Rhizobial-Legume Symbiosis: P. Smit and T. Bisseling1. Introduction2. Model Legumes3. Genetic Dissection of the Nod Factor-Signalling Pathway4. Nature of the Nod-factor Receptors5. The DMI Proteins6. NSPs are Nod Factor-Response Factors7. NIN is a Nod Factor-Response Factor8. Autoregulation of Nodule Number9. Concluding RemarksReferences 8. Legume Genomics Relevant to N2 Fixation: L. Schauser, M. Udvardi, S. Tabata and J. Stougaard1. Introduction2. Genomes3. Transcriptome Analysis4. Proteomic 5. Metabolomics6. Genetic Analysis Using Genomics7. Comparative Genomics 8. ConclusionsReferences 9. Physiology of Root-nodule Bacteria: P. S. Poole, M. F. Hynes, A. W. B. Johnston, R. P. Tiwari, W. G. Reeve and J. A. Downie 1. Introduction2. Introduction to Central Metabolism3. Metabolism and the Environment4. Micronutrition, Metals, and Vitamins5. Environmental Responses of Rhizobia6. Changes in Gene Expression in Bacteroids7. Stress Responses in RhizobiaReferences 10. Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Legume Nodules: C. P. Vance 1. Legume Root Nodules are Carbon and Nitrogen Factories2. Nodule Carbon Metabolism3. Sucrose Synthase4. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase5. Carbonic Anhydrase6. Malate Dehydrogenase7. Initial Assimilation of Fixed-N8. Glutamine Synthetase9. Glutamate Synthase10. Aspartate Aminotransferase11. Asparagine Synthetase12. Ureide Biosynthesis13. Genomic Insights14. OverviewReferences 11. Oxygen Diffusion, Production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species, and Antioxidants in Legume Nodules: F. R. Minchin, E. K. James and M. Becana 1. Introduction 2. Physiological Evidence for a Variable Oxygen-diffusion Barrier 3. Structure of the Cortical Oxygen-diffusion Barrier 4. Development of the Cortical Oxygen-diffusion Barrier 5. Regulation of the Cortical Oxygen-diffusion Barrier 6. Infected Zone Control 7. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Nodules 8. Antioxidants in Nodules 9. Concluding Remarks References 12. Prospects for the Future Use of Legumes: J. G. Howieson, R. J. Yates, K, Foster, D. Real and B. Besier1. Introduction2. Current and Past Legume-Usage Patterns3. New Uses for Legumes4. Matching Legumes and the Symbiosis to Edaphic and Economic Factors5. Utilising the Basic Advances6. ConclusionsReferences Subject Index
From the reviews: "This is the final volume in a comprehensive seven volume series on all aspects of nitrogen fixation, one of the key biological processes on the planet and still a major provider of nitrogen in agro-ecosystems. ! A wide range of topics is ! presented in an easy to read style, with good clear diagrams and figures. ! This is a well-written comprehensive text, with extensive bibliographies, that will be useful to students and academics at all levels, and is to be recommended strongly." (Ron Wheatley, Experimental Agriculture, Vol. 45, 2009)