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About this book
About this book
This book comprises a study of the two great organic solids in Nature, namely wood and bone. The common scientific laws which act in parallel for both natural and man-made materials are detailed here as wood and bone are studied in their natural structural environment as well as in the fields of engineering structural analysis and medical analysis. The relationship between them enables wood to be used in engineering structures and man-made materials to be used as scaffolding for tissue restoration in the human environment. The `two-way traffic' relationship explored in this volume is termed biomimesis, a modern development of the ancient Greek concept of mimesis - the man-made imitation of nature.
Chapter 1: Wood as an engineering material Advantages and disadvantages compared with other materials; Structure of the material and its effect on strength in various loading modes; Problems of joining, and how they are overcomes; Problems of dimensional stability, and how they are overcome; Use in the form of sheet material; Stiffness of boxes fabricated from orthotropic sheets such as plywood; Prevention of deterioration; Further reading Chapter 2: Uniform stress - A design rule for biological load carriers Introduction; Axiom of uniform stress; Optimisation methods; Conclusions Chapter 3: Nature and shipbuilding The jungle of the sea; Wooden shipbuilding: the basic problem; Shipbuilding-related wood properties Chapter 4: The structural efficiency of trees Introduction; Loading conditions; Adaptive growth; Optimal structural features; Optimal material features; Case study on adaptive growth; Research; Conclusion Chapter 5: Application of the homeostasis principle to expand Gaudi's funicular technique Introduction; The funicular model; The Homeostatic Model; Conclusions; Final reflection Chapter 6: Bones: the need for intrinsic material and architectural design Introduction; Variations in lamellar properties within osteons; Variations in bone properties with age and between individuals; Variations in lamellar properties in remodelled equine bone; Discussion and Conclusions Chapter 7: Restoration of biological and mechanical function in orthopaedics: A role for biomimesis in tissue engineering Introduction; Tissue engineering; Tissue engineering scaffolds; Natural biomaterials and skeletons; Biomimetic materials chemistry; Gene manipulation in tissue engineering; Conclusion Chapter 8: Design in nature Introduction; Genotypic/predictive - safe life; Phenotypic/adaptive; Cross-over from prediction to adaptation; Behavioural; Implications for Biomimesis