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This book discusses the controls and consequences that processes in the Earth's mantle have on mineralizing events in the crust. In developing this theme, the author takes into consideration advances in the theory of mantle plumes and examines the links, direct or indirect, that past and present plumes activities have in generating ore systems. Also included is an overview of the major volcanic features of terrestrial planets, and their possible origin in terms of plume-related magmatism. The book provides a time-space global overview of the relationship between mantle processes, associated igneous activities, such as the impressive continental flood basalts and the emplacement of layered igneous complexes, and the formation of metalliferous deposits. The links between mantle plumes and mafic-ultramafic igneous activity are treated in some detail and are followed by descriptions of selected, world-class, magmatic mineral deposits. The relationship between mantle plumes and hydrothermal mineral deposits is less obvious, nevertheless this topic is considered by examining the inception of continental rift systems, associated basins and the flow of fluids, which is catalyzed by thermal gradients induced by mantle upwellings. Examples of metalliferous deposits that are typically associated with thick volcano-sedimentary or sedimentary sequences, which accumulated in modern and ancient rift-related basins, are discussed. The book concludes with a review of metalliferous mineral deposits hosted by black shales, iron and manganese formations, and the possible link that these remarkable geological entities have with mantle plumes. This book is intended for a broad audience of readers including postgraduate students specializing in ore deposits geology, volcanology, and tectonics. This volume will also be of interest to professionals and specialists in the mineral exploration and mining industries.