There is increasing recognition of the value that local, indigenous and mobile communities can bring to the process of conserving biodiversity, and of the need for a range of conservation types from strict protection to multiple sustainable use. Such a paradigm shift is reflected in the outcomes of two recent global events: the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress (Durban, September 2003) and the 7th Conference of Parties of the Convention of Biological Diversity (Kuala Lumpur, February 2004). Partly through the efforts of the IUCN Theme on Indigenous and Local Communities, Equity and Protected Areas (TILCEPA), the concepts of Community Conserved Areas and Collaborative Management gained widespread acceptance at both these global events. This booklet contains key outputs that reflect this new trend. This booklet would be useful for people from various sectors working on wildlife/biodiversity conservation, community based natural resource management, conservation- based livelihood and poverty eradication, gender and equity in relation to conservation, and related topics.