This volume describes the evolution of immune systems and covers new molecular information concerning the development of recognition, immunoglobulins, and cytokines. Invertebrates and lower vertebrates contribute to a more complete understanding and clarification of the immune/inflammatory response in higher animals. Chapters detail the major areas of immunology and encourage a more extensive development of invertebrate models as useful and unique in modern immunological and industrial laboratories. In addition, chapters focus on mechanisms of development and immunodefenses in protostome and deuterostome and lower vertebrates. There is a strong emphasis on evolutionary cell biology, phylogenetic inferences, and the evolution of recognition and regulatory systems.
Preface; G. Beek. I. Evolution of Recognition Molecules. 1. New Major Histocompatibility Complex Class IIB Genes From Nurse Shark; S. Bartl. 2. Evolutionary Factors in the Emergence of the Combinatorial Germline Antibody Repertoire; J.J. Marchalonis, et al. 3. Individual-Specific Repertoires of Immune Cells SRCR Receptors in the Purple Sea Urchin (S. Purpuratus); Z. Pancer. II. Cytokines and Antibacterial Peptides of Invertebrates. 4. Molecular Characterization of IL-1-like. Molecules from Lower Vertebrates and Invertebrates; G. Beek, N. Truong. 5. The Detection and Isolation of a Novel Antimicrobial Peptide from the Echinoderm, Cucumaria frondosa; K.A. Beauregard et al. 6. Isolation and Characterization of an IL-1-like Protein from Manduca sexta; N.T. Truong, et al. 7. Clavanins and Styelins, a-Helicall Antimicrobial Peptides from the Hemocytes of Styela Clava; R.I. Lehrer et al. 8. The Discovery and Characterization of an Interleukin 6 Cytokine Family Antagonist Protein from a Marine Sponge, Callyspongia sp.; J.V. Peppard, et al. 9. Phylogeny Of Vertebrate Cytokines; C.J. Secombes, et al. 10. Antimicrobial Proteins in Crustaceans; V.J. Smith, J.R.S. Chisholm. 11. Form, Function and Phylogenetic Relationships of Mosquito Immune Peptides; C.A. Lowenberger. III. Cellular and Humoral Responses in Invertebrates. 12. Reactive Oxygen Species and Antimicrobial Defense of Invertebrates: A Bivalve Model; R.S. Anderson. 13. A Role For Protease Inhibitors In Immunity of Long-Lived Animals; P.B. Armstrong, J.P. Quigley. 14. Suppression of the Drosophila Cellular Immune Response By Ganaspis xanthopoda; H. Chiu, et al. 15. Annelid Humoral Immunity: Cell Lysis in Earthworms; E.L. Cooper, et al. 16. Horseshoe Crab Hemocyte-Derived Lectin Recognizing Specific O-Antigens of Lipopolysaccharides; K. Inamori, et al. 17. A Family of C-type Lectins in Manduca sexta; X.-Q. Yu, M.R. Kanost. 18. Role of Tachylectins in Host Defense of the Japanese Horseshoe Crab Tachypieus Tridentatus; S. Kawabata, et al. 19. Hemolytic Capacity, Properties, and Activation Requirements of Cobra Venom Factor-Treated Chicken Serum; T.L. Koppenheffer. 20. Molecular Studies of the Molluscan Response to Digenean Infection; E.S. Loker, Ch.J. Bayne. 21. Insect Lectins and Innate Immunity; S. Natori. 22. Collagenous Lectins in Tunicates and the Proteolytic Activation of Complement; D. Raftos, et al. 23. Immunological Properties of Heat Shock Proteins are Phylogenetically Conserved; J. Robert, et al. 24. Drosophila Cellular Immune System: Dorothy Encodes a UDP Glycosyltransferase; Z. Zhou, et al. 25. Eicosanoids in Insect Immune Signal Transduction; D.W. Stanley, R.W. Howard. 26. Lectins from Tunicates: Structure-Function Relationships in Innate Immunity; G.R. Vasta, et al. IV. Protease Cascades and Invertebrate Host Defenses. 27. Control Mechanisms of the Prophenoloxidase Cascade; M. Sugumaran. 28. Activated Prophenoloxidase Engaged in the Cell Clump/Cell Adhesion of Coleopteran Insect, Tenebrio Molitor Larvae; H.S. Lee, et al. 29. Three Kinds of Encapsulation-Relating Factors in Coleopteran Insect, Tenebrio Molitor Larvae; M.Y. Cho, et al. 30. A b-1,3-Glucan-Binding Protein from Manduca sexta; C. Ma, M.R. Kanost. 31. Proteolytic Activation of Prophenoloxidase in an Insect Manduca sexta; H. Jiang, et al. 32. Hemolymph Proteinases in Immune Responses of Manduca sexta; M.R. Kanost, et al. 33. Cytotoxic Reactions Associated with Insect Immunity; A.J. Nappi, E. Vass. 34. Genomic and cDNA Sequence of Prophenoloxidases from Drosophila melanogaster; M.R. Chase, Manickam Sugumaran. 35. The Complement System in Sea Urchins; L. Courtney Smith. 36. Paralytic and Plasmatocyte Spreading Peptide from Manduca sexta; Y. Wang, et al. Index.