1. Phylogeny and conservation Andy Purvis, John L. Gittleman and Thomas M. Brooks; Part I. Units and Currencies: 2. Molecular phylogenetics for conservation biology Elizabeth A. Sinclair, Marcos Perez-Losada and Keith A. Crandall; 3. Species: demarcation and diversity Paul-Michael Agapow, 4. Phylogenetic units and currencies above and below the species level John C. Avise; 5. Integrating phylogenetic diversity in the selection of priority areas for conservation: does it make a difference? Ana S. L. Rodrigues, Thomas M. Brooks and Kevin J. Gaston; 6. Evolutionary heritage as a metric for conservation Arne O. Mooers, Stephen B. Heard and E. Chrostowski; Part II. Inferring Evolutionary Processes: 7. Age and area revisited: identifying global patterns and implications for conservation Kate E. Jones, Wes Sechrest and John L. Gittleman; 8. Putting process on the map: why ecotones are important for preserving biodiversity Thomas B. Smith, Sassan Saatchi, Catherine Graham, Hans Slabbekoorn and Greg Spicer; 9. The oldest rainforests in Africa: stability or resilience for survival and diversity? Jon C. Lovett, Rob Marchant, James Taplin and Wolfgang K#per; 10. Late Tertiary and Quaternary climate change and centres of endemism in the southern African flora Guy F. Midgley, Gail Reeves and C. Klak; 11. Historical biogeography, diversity and conservation of Australia's tropical rainforest herpetofauna Craig Moritz, Conrad Hoskin, Catherine H. Graham, Andrew Hugall and Adnan Moussalli; Part III. Effects of Human Processes: 12. Conservation status and geographic distribution of avian evolutionary history Thomas M. Brooks, J. D. Pilgrim, Ana S. L. Rodrigues and Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca; 13. Correlates of extinction risk: phylogeny, biology, threat and scale Andy Purvis, Marcel Cardillo, Richard Grenyer and Ben Collen; 14. Mechanisms of extinction in birds: phylogeny, ecology and threats Peter M. Bennett, Ian P. F. Owens, Daniel Nussey, Stephen T. Garnett and Gabriel M. Crowley; 15. Primate diversity patterns and their conservation in Amazonia JosBysa. a Predicwsp will become invasive: what's taxonomy got to do with it? Julie Lockwood; Part IV. Prognosis: 17. Phylogenetic futures after the latest mass extinction Sean Nee; 18. Predicting future speciation Timothy G. Barraclough and T. Jonathan Davies.