To cope with the abiotic stress-induced osmotic problems, plants adapt by either increasing uptake of inorganic ions from the external solution, or by de novo synthesis of organic compatible solutes acting as osmolytes.
Of the osmoregulants and protectants discussed in this volume, trehalose, fructans, ectoine and citrulline, which are generated in different species, in osmotically ineffective amounts, mitigate the stress effects on cells/plants and improve productivity. There are several pieces of encouraging research discussed in this volume showing significant improvement in stress tolerance and in turn productivity by involving genetic engineering techniques.
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