The major function of chloroplasts in green plants and algae is oxygenic photosynthesis. Further, chloroplasts manufacture essential metabolites and phytohormones. Because of the extensive interconnection with cellular metabolic and regulatory networks, development of the organelle and the organism are coordinately regulated. Conversion of proplastids to chloroplasts is associated with the development of the entire organism, and dismantling of chloroplasts during the chloroplast-to-gerontoplast transition is coupled to senescence, the terminal phase of development.
The availability of genomic tools of model plants, especially those of Arabidopsis,have allowed us to understand many complex problems associated with organelle biogenesis and senescence. Twenty-eight chapters in Plastid Development in Leaves During Growth and Senescence provide updated information on chloroplast development. The dynamic nature of plastid genome expression, regulation, and stability during development have been critically reviewed. In addition, authors describe how the development of emerging techniques and tools of bioinformatics, as well as rapid progress in plant molecular biology, have significantly expanded our knowledge in the area of biogenesis of the chloroplast.
Plastid Development in Leaves During Growth and Senescence reviews the current literature on the coordinated synthesis of lipids, pigments and proteins, trafficking of the essential components, the assembly and the regulation of the protein complexes in the thylakoids as well as of the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco.
The book provides information on genetically programmed leaf senescence and regulated disassembly of the organellar complexes during chloroplast to gerontoplast transformation. Plastid Development in Leaves During Growth and Senescence also deals with the response of the developing chloroplast to environmental signals through modifications and adaptation.
Plastid Development in Leaves During Growth and Senescence was designed for those interested in plastid biology, plant development and photosynthesis, but will also be of general interest to plant biologists.
Part I: General Aspects of Chloroplast Development
1. The Dynamic Role of Chloroplasts in Integrating Plant Growth and Development; Karin Krupinska et al
2. Chloroplast Development: Time, Dissipative Structure and Fluctuations; Mukesh K. Raval et al
Part II: Chloroplast Biogenesis During Leaf Development
3. Etioplasts and their Significance in Chloroplast Biogenesis; Katalin Solymosi, Henrik Aronsson
4. The Biogenesis of the Thylakoid Membrane - Photosystem II, a Case Study; Karin Meierhoff, Peter Westhoff
5. Organization and Assembly of Photosystem I; Yukako Hihara, Kintake Sonoike
6. Rubisco Assembly - a Research Memoir; Harry Roy
7. Glycerolipid Biosynthesis and Chloroplast Biogenesis; Maryse Block et al
8. Chloroplasts Contact with the Endoplasmatic Reticulum and Lipid Trafficking; Mats X. Andersson
9. Stromule Formation; John C. Gray
Part III: The Plastid Genome and its Expression during Chloroplast Development
10. Dynamic Features of the Plastid Genome and its Transcriptional Control in Plastid Development; Kengo Kanamaru, Mamoru Sugita
11. Development-Dependent Changes in the Amount and Structural Organization of Plastid DNA; Karsten Liere, Thomas Borner
12. The Ins and Outs of Chloroplast Protein Transport; Qihua Ling et al
Part IV: Leaf Senescence and Chloroplast Dismantling
13. Defining Senescence and Death in Photosynthetic Tissues; Larry D. Nooden
14. Ultrastructural Analyses of Senescence Associated Dismantling of Chloroplasts Revisited; Maria Mulisch, Karin Krupinska
15. Plastoglobuli, Thylakoids, Chloroplast Structure and Development of Plastids; Hartmut K. Lichtenthaler
16. The Pathway of Chlorophyll Degradation: Catabolites, Enzymes and Pathway Regulation; Stefan Hortensteiner
17. Regulation of Leaf Senescence: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species; Renu Khanna-Chopra et al
18. Chloroplast Protein Degradation: Involvement of Senescence Associated Vacuoles; M. Lorenza Costa et al
19. Autophagy of Chloroplasts During Leaf Senescence; Shinya Wada, Hiroyuki Ishida
20. Plastid Protein Degradation During Leaf Development and Senescence: Role of Proteases and Chaperones; Yusuke Kato, Wataru Sakamoto
Part V. Organellar Control of Development
21. Cross-Talk of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts; Michela Zottini
22. Plastidial Signaling During the Plant Life Cycle; Thomas Pfannschmidt, Sergi Munne-Bosch
23. Chloroplast Control of Leaf Senescence; Bartalome Sabater, Mercedes Martin
24. The Role of Trehalose Metabolism in Photosynthetic Development and Leaf Senescence; Astrid Wingler, Matthew Paul
Part VI. Environmental Signals and Chloroplast Development
25. Photoregulation of Chloroplast Development: Retrograde Signaling; Naini Burman, Jitendra P. Khurana
26. Regreening of Yellow Leaves; Hrvoje Fulgosi et al
27. Modulation of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis by Environmental Cues; Baishnab C.Tripathy, Vijay Dalal
28. Response of Developing, Mature and Senescing Chloroplasts to Environmental Stress; Padmanava Joshi et al