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This title offers a simple starting point to VPSEM, especially for new users, technicians and students containing clear, concise explanations. Crucially, the principles and applications outlined in this book are completely generic: i.e. applicable to all types of VPSEM, irrespective of manufacturer. The information presented will enable reader to turn principles into practice.
ContentsChapter 1 -A brief historical overview1.1 Scanning electron microscopy1.2 The development of imaging in a gas environmentChapter 2 -Principles of SEM2.1 Introduction2.2 Electron sources2.3 Electron optics2.4 Signals and detection2.5 Practical aspects of electron beam irradiation2.6 the sem in operation Chapter 3 -General principles of VP-ESEM: utilising a gas3.1 Introduction3.2 VP-ESEM instrumentation3.3 Signal generation in a gas3.4 Imaging with water vapour Chapter 4 -Imaging and analysis in the VP-ESEM: the influence of a gas4.1 Introduction4.2 Background to theoretical calculations 4.3 Which gas?4.4 Exploring the gas path length4.5 How much gas?4.6 X-ray microanalysis in the VP-ESEM Chapter 5 -Imaging uncoated specimens in the VP-ESEM 5.1 Introduction5.2 Electronic structure5.3 Factors affecting secondary electron emission5.4 The influence of the specimen on the system5.5 Time- and temperature-dependent effects5.6 imaging soft materials5.7 Effects of ions on imaging5.8 Imaging with a gas: summary Chapter 6 -A lab in a chamber - in situ methods in VP-ESEM and other applications 6.1 Introduction6.2 Nanocharacterisation of insulating materials6.3 In situ experiments6.4 Other applications