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About this book
About this book
In landfilling technology, it is accepted that the soil substrate underlying the landfill can be used as a physical and chemical buffer (i.e. to accumulate and attenuate contaminant leachates emanating from the waste pile) . This places a great responsiblity on the landfill constructor to determine correctly the capability of the soil substrate to perform its buffering funtions. This book covers the physico-chemical processes which control the transport of aqueous and nonaqueous phase liquids in soils, and aims to provide a viable and reliable transport model for accurate forecasting of transport performance of contaminant plume for the time period of concern.
Preface. 1. Waste Generation and Disposal. Waste and waste management. Hazardous waste classification. Waste, and its lethality. Regulated, non-regulated waste and 4 R's. Requirements and problems in land disposal. Concluding remarks. 2. Soil Composition. Soil material. Soil surfaces. Electric charge. Soil organics. Concluding remarks. 3. Wastes and Contaminants. Introduction. Hazardous wastes and toxic substances. Sources of wastes. Chemically reactive groups. Contaminant characteristics and properties. Some typical wastes. Concluding remarks. 4. Soil-Water Interaction and Relations. Introduction. Interaction with water. Energies of interaction. Bonding and interactions. Soil-water potential. Water movement in clay soils. Summary and general observations. 5. Contaminant-Soil Interaction. Introduction. Interaction by chemically reactive groups. Contaminant-soil interaction mechanisms. Sorption of contaminants. Sorption by soil constituents. Soil interaction with organic chemicals. Concluding remarks. 6. Soil Permeability: Characteristics and Laboratory Measurements. Introduction. Laboratory methods for permeability testing. Clay soil permeability. Influence of contaminants on clay permeability. Summary and concluding remarks. 7. Evaluation of Adsorption and Diffusion. Introduction. Batch equilibrium and column leaching tests. Selective sequential extraction. Estimation of transport parameters. Field evaluation. Concluding remarks. 8. Contaminant Transport Modelling: Solute Transport. Nature of the problem. Contaminant transport models. Modelling for physico-chemical forces. Calibration and validation of models. Concluding remarks. 9. Contaminant Transport Modelling: Transport of Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids. Introduction. NAPL pathways in substrate soil. NAPL fate and transport. Model development. Concluding remarks. References and Suggested Reading. Index.