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About this book
About this book
Provides information, from fifty experts in the field, on how to obtain reliable environmental samples from water, air biota, solids, and hazardous wastes.
Determining What Kinds of Samples and How Many Samples to Analyze; Overview of the Sampling Process; Legal Considerations in Sampling; Defining the Accuracy, Precision, and Confidence Limits of Sample Data; Assessing and Controlling Sample Contamination; Environmental Sampling Quality Assurance; Defining Control Site and Blank Sample Needs; Effect of Equipment on Sample Representativeness; Extending the Concept of Data Quality Objectives To Account for Total Sample Variance; Pilot Studies for Improving Sampling Protocols; The Sampling Theory of Pierre Gy: Comparisons, Implementation, and Applications for Environmental Sampling; Modern Sampling Equipment: Design and Application; Automatic Water and Wastewater Sampling; Techniques for Sampling Surface and Industrial Waters: Special Considerations and Choices; Preservation Techniques for Organic and Inorganic Compounds in Water Samples; Development of Stability Data for Organic Compounds in Environmental Samples; Solid-Phase Extraction Basics for Water Analysis; Sampling Waters: The Impact of Sample Variability on Planning and Confidence Levels; Fundamentals and Considerations for Field Filtration of Environmental Water Samples; Planning and Design for Environmental Sampling; Sampling Groundwater Monitoring Wells: Special Quality Assurance and Quality Control Considerations; Groundwater Sampling; Sampling for Organic Chemicals in Air; Current and Emerging Sampling and Analytical Methods for Point Source and Non-Point Source Emission Measurements; Sampling for Exposure Assessment in the Workplace and Community: Strategies and Methods; Particulate Matter with Aerodynamic Diameters Smaller than 10 m: Measurement Methods and Sampling Strategies; Effects of Environmental Measurement Variability on Air Quality Decisions; Airborne Sampling and In Situ Measurement of Atmospheric Chemical Species; Aerometric Measurement Requirements for Quantifying Dry Deposition; Sampling Aquatic Biological Matrices; Coping with Sampling Variability in Biota: Percentiles and Other Strategies; Sample Size: Relation to Analytical and Quality Assurance and Quality Control Requirements; Composite Sampling for Environmental Monitoring; Volatile Organic Compounds in Soil: Accurate and Representative Analysis; Sampling and Analysis for Mixed Chemical and Radiological Parameters; Integration of Immunoassay Field Analytical Techniques into Sampling Plans; Preservation Techniques for Samples of Solids, Sludges, and Nonaqueous Liquids; Sampling and Analysis of Hazardous and Industrial Wastes: Special Quality Assurance and Quality Control Considerations; Cost-Effective Sampling for Spatially Distributed Phenomena; Geostatistical Sampling Designs for Hazardous Waste Sites